6809 Assembly programming for the Fujitsu FM-7

The FM-7 is one of a series of Fujitsu computers released in Japan

With a pair of 6809 CPU's it was widely popular in Japan, and is one of the few 6809 computers released.

In these tutorials we'll learn the about the FM7, and write some simple programs for it



FM-7
Cpu Main: 2mhz 6809
Sub:  2mhz 6809 for GPU
Ram 64k Ram
48k VRam
Sound AY-3-8912
optional FM2203 add on
Max Resolution 640 x 200 @ 8 colors (RGB CMY BW)

Hello World Example

Here is a sample file...

We've provided a Header, containing the Length and destination load address...

There is also an Exec address in the footer, however this does not actually have any effect!

The hello world example uses the PrintChar routine in the basic rom at $D08E of the FM-7 OS

StartUp File

To make our disk automatically start, we need a basic launcher.

Here we've written a BAS file, it will load machine code program "PROG" (which has a built in destination address of &H2000)

Next we execute it with an EXEC command

We need to save this as "STARTUP" (Case Sensitive)

Building our program to the disk

We need to create a binary file (with a 2b0 extension)

We use ASW to compile the program, and P2Bin to convert it to a binary.

To add a file to a disk we'll need the Ftools kit

We'll use a template disk (with our STARTUP bas) and attach the 2b0 file to it


Sending Data to the Sub CPU

The Sub CPU handles graphics drawing and key input - it's a second 6809

To control it we have to send data to it via a 128 byte shared memory block, between $FC80-FCFF ($D380-D3FF on the Sub CPU side)

To do this, we have to:
1. Wait for the Sub Cpu to not be busy (wait for Bit7 in $FD05 to equal 0)
2. Halt the Sub Cpu (set Bit 7 of $FD05 to 1)
3. Copy command data to $FC80-FCFF
4. Resume the Sub CPU (write 0 to $FD05)

The command will then be processed by the sub CPU
if we HALT and RESUME the sub cpu but don't set a command there WILL be trouble!

When we do this we need to set the 'request ready' bit (Bit 7 of $F780) - this will stop the SUB CPU trying to process a command and getting confused.


RAM Main CPU

From To Use
$0000   $7FFF   Ram
$8000 $FBFF Basic Rom / Ram **
$FC00 $FC7F Ram
$FC80 $FCFF Shared Ram (With SUB CPU $D380)
$FD00 $FDFF IO area
$FE00 $FEEF Boot Rom
$FFF0 $FFFF Vectors


** $FD0F Enable/Disable Basic ROM 8000-FC00 (Write=Disable... Read= Enable)

RAM Sub CPU

From To Use
$0000   $3FFF   VRAM (BLUE)
$4000 $7FFF VRAM (RED)
$8000 $BFFF VRAM (GREEN)
$C000 $CFFF Console Buffer Ram
$D000 $D37F Work Ram
$D380 $D3FF Shared Ram (With MAIN CPU $FC80)
$D400 $D7FF IO area
$D800 $DFFF Character Rom
$E000 $FFFF CRT Monitor Rom

Ports Main CPU

Address Read Bits Read Purpose Write Bits Write Purpose
$FD00 D-------M Key Clock D8 Ss-------Ao Audio Casette / Printer
$FD01 DDDDDDDD Key Data DDDDDDDD Printer Data
$FD02 A-PPPPPP Audio Casette / Printer RRRR-TPK IRQ
$FD03 ----ETPK IRQ CK-----S Buzzer
$FD04 ------BA SubCpu Brk / Attention

$FD05 B------E SubCPU Busy / Extdet HC-----Z Halt / Cancel / Z80
$FD06 DDDDDDDD RS232 Data DDDDDDDD RS232 Data
$FD07 SSSSSSSS RS232 Status CCCCCCCC RS232 Comand
$FD0D

RRRRRRRR PSG AY Register (need to write zero after reg num?)
$FD0E DDDDDDDD PSG AY Data DDDDDDDD PSG AY Data
$FD0F BBBBBBBB ROM Bank BBBBBBBB Ram Bank
$FD18 SSSSSSSS Floppy Status CCCCCCCC Floppy Command
$FD19 DDDDDDDD Floppy Track Register DDDDDDDD Floppy Track Register
$FD1A DDDDDDDD Floppy Sector Register DDDDDDDD Floppy Sector Register
$FD1B DDDDDDDD Floppy Sector Register DDDDDDDD Floppy Sector Register
$FD1C DDDDDDDD Floppy DDDDDDDD Floppy
$FD1D DDDDDDDD Floppy DDDDDDDD Floppy
$FD1E DDDDDDDD Floppy DDDDDDDD Floppy
$FD1F DI------ Floppy
Floppy
$FD20
Kanji Rom 1 DDDDDDDD Kanji Rom 1
$FD21
Kanji Rom 1 DDDDDDDD Kanji Rom 1
$FD22 DDDDDDDD Kanji Rom 1
Kanji Rom 1
$FD23 DDDDDDDD Kanji Rom 1
Kanji Rom 1
$FD2C
Kanji Rom 2
Kanji Rom 2
$FD2D
Kanji Rom 2
Kanji Rom 2
$FD2E
Kanji Rom 2
Kanji Rom 2
$FD2F
Kanji Rom 2
Kanji Rom 2
$FD2E?
Dictionary Bank
Dictionary Bank
$FD30


Analog Palette Number
$FD31


Analog Palette Number
$FD32


Analog Palette Blue Level
$FD33


Analog Palette Red Level
$FD34


Analog Palette Green Level
$FD35
Speech Synthesis
Speech Synthesis
$FD37

-GRB-GRB Multipage (Display / Write Lock)
$FD38 -----GRB Palette 0 (---) -----GRB Palette 0
$FD39 -----GRB Palette 1 (--B) -----GRB Palette 1
$FD3A -----GRB Palette 2 (-R-) -----GRB Palette 2
$FD3B -----GRB Palette 3 (-RB) -----GRB Palette 3
$FD3C -----GRB Palette 4 (G--) -----GRB Palette 4
$FD3D -----GRB Palette 5 (G-B) -----GRB Palette 5
$FD3E -----GRB Palette 6 (GR-) -----GRB Palette 6
$FD3F -----GRB Palette 7 (GRB) -----GRB Palette 7
$FD40
Modem Card
Modem Card
$FD41
Modem Card
Modem Card
$FD42


Modem Card
$FD56
Voice Recognition Card
Voice Recognition Card
$FD57
Voice Recognition Card
Voice Recognition Card
$FD58
Handy Image Scanner

$FD59


Handy Image Scanner
$FD5A
Handy Image Scanner

$FD80
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD81
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD82
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD83
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD84
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD85
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD86
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD87
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD88
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD89
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD8A
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD8B
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD8C
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD8D
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD8E
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD8F
Memory Management Register
Memory Management Register
$FD90


MMR Segment Register
$FD92


Window Offset Register
$FD93


Mode Select Register 1
$FD94


CPU Speed
$FD95
Mode Select Switch 2
Mode Select Switch 2
$FD98


DMAC
$FD99
DMAC
DMAC
$FDE0


Mouse
$FDE1
Mouse
Mouse
$FDE2
Mouse
Mouse
$FDE3
Mouse
Mouse
$FDE4
Mouse
Mouse
$FDE5
Mouse
Mouse
$FDE6
Mouse
Mouse
$FDE7
Mouse
Mouse
$FDE8
Mouse
Mouse
$FDE9


MIDI
$FDEA
MIDI
MIDI
$FDEB
MIDI
MIDI
$FDEC
MIDI
MIDI
$FDED
MIDI
MIDI
$FDEE
MIDI
MIDI
$FDEF


MIDI


Ports Sub CPU

Address Read Bits Read Purpose Write Bits Write Purpose
$D400 DDDDDDDD Key Data

$D401 -------D Key Data

$D402
Cancel IRQ ACK

$D404
Main CPU Attention IRQ

$D408
CRT ON
CRT OFF
$D409
Vram Access Set
Vram Access Reset
$D40A
Ready
Busy
$D40D
Ins LED ON
Ins LED OFF
$D40E

--HHHHHH Vram Address H
$D40F

LLLLLLLL Vram Address L


Colors

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Char Map


Special Chars

Code
Meaning
$11 SF Start Field
$12,X,Y SBA Set Buffer Address (Locate)
$13,count,Ascii RC Repeat Character
$05 EL Erase Line
$07 BEL BELL (Beep)
$08 BS BackSpace
$09 HT Horizontal TAB
$0A LF Line Feed
$0B HOME   Buffer Address to top of screen
$0C EA Erase All (CLS)
$0D CR Carrage Return
$1C
Right Cursor
$1D
Left Cursor
$1E
Up Cursor
$1F
Down Cursor
$1B,$23
Lock Keyboard
$1B,$22
Unlock Keyboard
$1B,$39
Erase Key Buffer
$1B,$67
Set Buffered Mode
$1B,$69
Set Unbuffered Mode

Graphics Operations

Code 
Op Details
0 PSET Set to Color
1 PRESET Set to background Color
2 OR Add to
3 AND Mask
4 XOR Invert
5 NOT Flip bits

Commands that can be sent to the Sub CPU

There are a variety of commands that can be sent to the Sub CPU, there are some special 'secret' ones called the YAMAUCHI calls,
These allow data to be direct copied to the SubCPU and allows for execution

Gfx Cmd
Name
Purpose Data (Load into #$FC80) Returns
$01 INIT Init Console DC.B unused,unused
DC.B $01,Background
DC.B Widh,Hei (80/40,25/20)
DC.B ScrollStart,ScrollEnd
DC.B SHowFunctions,ClearScreen,GreenScreen

$02 ERASE Clear screen DC.B unused,unused
DC.B $02,Mode (0-3),Color

$03 PUT Print Characters
dc.b unused,unused
dc.b continue (128=yes)     
dc.b unused
dc.b $03
dc.b Bytecount
dc.b StringToSend

$04 GET


$05 GETC


$06 Get Character Block 1


$07 Put Character Block 1


$08 Get Character Block 2


$09 Put Character Block 2


$0A Get Buffer Address


$0B Tab Set


$0C Console Control


$0D Erase 2


$15 Line Draw Lines, Fill Boxes
dc.b unused,unused
dc.b $15,color,operation
dc.w StartX,StartY,EndX,EndY
dc.b mode (line,square,filled)

$16 Chain Draw a series of lines


$17 Point Draw Dots
dc.b unused,unused
dc.b $17,points (1-20)
(for each point)
    dc.w Xpos,Ypos    ;(X,Y)
    dc.b Color,Operation        ;Color,Operation


$18 Paint Fill an area
dc.b $18
dc.w Xpos,Ypos
dc.b FillColor
dc.b BoundaryCount
dc.b BoundaryColor....BoundaryColor

$19 Symbol Draw text with color, Scale and rotation
dc.b unused,unused
dc.b $19,Color,Operation
dc.b Rotation (0,90,180,270)
dc.b ScaleX,ScaleY (1=normal)
dc.w Xpos,Ypos
dc.b StringLen
dc.b "String"

$1A Change Color Swap colors for other colors
    dc.b $1A
dc.w StartX,StartY,EndX,EndY
    dc.b 2                ;SwapCount
    dc.b 7,6            ;Old Color,New Color
    dc.b 4,3            ;Old Color,New Color

$1B Get Block 1


$1C Put Block 1 Send Monocrome data


$1D Get Block 2


$1E Put Block 2 Send Color Data
dc.b unused,Multiblock (128=Y)
dc.b $1E
dc.w StartX,StartY,EndX,EndY
dc.b Unused, Function, Bytes
dc.b pixel,pixel,pixel....

$1F Graphics Cursor



$20
Character Line


$29 Inkey
DC.B unused,unused
DC.B $29,Option(Bit0=Wait,Bit1=Reset)
DC.B ErrorCode,Unused,Unused
DC.B,Keycode (ASCII),Keyreturned? (1=yes)
$2A Define String of PF


$2B Get String of PF


$2C Interrupt Control


$3D Set Timer


$3E Read Timer


$3F - 90
YAMAUCHI END End command sequence DC.B unused,unused
DC.B $3F,’YAMAUCHI’,$90

$3F - 93
YAMAUCHI CALL Call program in sub cpu ram DC.B unused,unused
DC.B $3F,’YAMAUCHI’,$93
DC.W {address}
DC.B $90

$3F - 92
YAMAUCHI MOVE transfer data in sub cpu DC.B unused,unused
DC.B $3F,’YAMAUCHI’,$91
DC.W {FromAddrInSub}
DC.W {ToAddrInSub}
DC.W {LengthInBytes}
DC.B $90

$3F - 91 YAMAUCHI JUMP Jump to an address DC.B unused,unused
DC.B $3F,’YAMAUCHI’,$91
DC.W {address}
DC.B $90

$64 Continue Send more data (Put Block) dc.b unused,Multiblock (128=Y)
dc.b $64 ;Continue
dc.b pixel,pixel,pixel....


The FM8 required $3F to be followed with the 8 byte 'YAMAUCHI' string... but FM7 onwards didn't check it ...

There still needs to be 8 bytes 'there' before $9x commands - but they can be anything.


AY Registers

The procedure for setting and reading AY-3-8910 registers is not quite direct... the method is shown here Select Register:
RegNum -> $FD0E
#$03 -> $FD0D
#$00 -> $FD0D
Write Selected Register:
New Value -> $FD0E
#$02 -> $FD0D
#$00 -> $FD0D
Read Selected Register:
#$01 -> $FD0D
$FD0E -> Result
#$00 -> $FDOD


FM Registers

The FM7 later gained a YM2203 FM card!
It's strangely backwards compatible with the AY too.
This had a built in joystick port we may want to use!
Select Register:
RegNum -> $FD16
#$03 -> $FD15
#$00 -> $FD15
Write Selected Register:
New Value -> $FD16
#$02 -> $FD15
#$00 -> $FD15
Read Selected Register:
#$09 -> $FD15
$FD16 -> Result
#$00 -> $FD15

Joystick Reading

The original FM7 had no joystick... but the later FM card had one as an upgrade.

The Joystick is connected to ports A (Reg14) & B (Reg15) Reg 14 selects which joystick to read (1 or 2)... reg 15 reads in from the joystick.
;Init Joystick
    ldb #15    ;RegNum
    lda #$7F    ;Value    (Turn off joysticks)
    jsr FMRegWrite
   
    ldb #7    ;RegNum
    lda #%10111111    ;Value (Set Direction B=Out R15 / A= In R14)
    jsr FMRegWrite

    ldb #15 ;$2F (Joy0) $5F (Joy1)
    lda #$2F
    jsr FMRegWrite

    ldb #14
    jsr FMRegRead        ;A= %--21RLDU


 

View Options
Default Dark
Simple (Hide this menu)
Print Mode (white background)

Top Menu
***Main Menu***
Youtube channel
Forum
AkuSprite Editor
Dec/Bin/Hex/Oct/Ascii Table

Z80 Content
***Z80 Tutorial List***
Learn Z80 Assembly
Hello World
Advanced Series
Multiplatform Series
Platform Specific Series
ChibiAkumas Series
Grime Z80
Z80 Downloads
Z80 Cheatsheet
Sources.7z
DevTools kit
Z80 Platforms
Amstrad CPC
Elan Enterprise
Gameboy & Gameboy Color
Master System & GameGear
MSX & MSX2
Sam Coupe
TI-83
ZX Spectrum
Spectrum NEXT
Camputers Lynx

6502 Content
***6502 Tutorial List***
Learn 6502 Assembly
Advanced Series
Platform Specific Series
Hello World Series
Grime 6502
6502 Downloads
6502 Cheatsheet
Sources.7z
DevTools kit
6502 Platforms
Apple IIe
Atari 800 and 5200
Atari Lynx
BBC Micro
Commodore 64
Commander x16
Super Nintendo (SNES)
Nintendo NES / Famicom
PC Engine (Turbografx-16)
Vic 20

68000 Content
***68000 Tutorial List***
Learn 68000 Assembly
Hello World Series
Platform Specific Series
Grime 68000
68000 Downloads
68000 Cheatsheet
Sources.7z
DevTools kit
68000 Platforms
Amiga 500
Atari ST
Neo Geo
Sega Genesis / Mega Drive
Sinclair QL
X68000 (Sharp x68k)

8086 Content
Learn 8086 Assembly
Platform Specific Series
Hello World Series
8086 Downloads
8086 Cheatsheet
Sources.7z
DevTools kit
8086 Platforms
Wonderswan
MsDos

ARM Content
Learn ARM Assembly
Platform Specific Series
ARM Downloads
ARM Cheatsheet
Sources.7z
DevTools kit
ARM Platforms
Gameboy Advance
Nintendo DS
Risc Os

Risc-V Content
Learn Risc-V Assembly
Risc-V Downloads
Risc-V Cheatsheet
Sources.7z
DevTools kit

PDP-11 Content
Learn PDP-11 Assembly
PDP-11 Downloads
PDP-11 Cheatsheet
Sources.7z
DevTools kit

TMS9900 Content
Learn TMS9900 Assembly
TMS9900 Downloads
TMS9900 Cheatsheet
Sources.7z
DevTools kit
TMS9900 Platforms
Ti 99

6809 Content
Learn 6809 Assembly
6809 Downloads
6809/6309 Cheatsheet
Sources.7z
DevTools kit
6809 Platforms
Dragon 32/Tandy Coco
Fujitsu FM7
TRS-80 Coco 3
Vectrex

My Game projects
Chibi Aliens
Chibi Akumas

Work in Progress
Learn 65816 Assembly
Learn eZ80 Assembly

Misc bits
Ruby programming































































Recent New Content
Lesson P64 - Mouse reading on the MSX

Z80 ASM tron clone Photon - Random Numbers and Title Screen

Key reading in DOS - 8086 Assembly Lesson P5

Z80 Tron clone (Photon) - Line Drawing

SpeedTile software Tilemap Engine - Z80 SuperTile map

Introduction and Data Structures - tron clone photon

AMX Mouse reading on the Amstrad CPC

16 color Bitmap Drawing on the TRS-80 CoCo 3

Stereoscopic 3D Special! - Drawing 3D images, 3D Conversion, 3D technologies

Hardware Sprites on the PC Engine / Turbografix

Lesson YQuest10 - Hardware sprites on the Genesis

6809 Lesson 5 - More Maths - Logical Ops, Bit shifts and more


Gaming + more:

Emily The Strange (DS) - Live full playthrough

$150 calculator: Unboxing the Ti-84 Plus CE (eZ80 cpu)










Buy Chibi Akuma(s) from PolyPlay
Buy ChibiAkuma(s) games now!














































































































Recent New Content
Lesson P64 - Mouse reading on the MSX

Z80 ASM tron clone Photon - Random Numbers and Title Screen

Key reading in DOS - 8086 Assembly Lesson P5

Z80 Tron clone (Photon) - Line Drawing

SpeedTile software Tilemap Engine - Z80 SuperTile map

Introduction and Data Structures - tron clone photon

AMX Mouse reading on the Amstrad CPC

16 color Bitmap Drawing on the TRS-80 CoCo 3

Stereoscopic 3D Special! - Drawing 3D images, 3D Conversion, 3D technologies

Hardware Sprites on the PC Engine / Turbografix

Lesson YQuest10 - Hardware sprites on the Genesis

6809 Lesson 5 - More Maths - Logical Ops, Bit shifts and more


Gaming + more:

Emily The Strange (DS) - Live full playthrough

$150 calculator: Unboxing the Ti-84 Plus CE (eZ80 cpu)










Buy Chibi Akuma(s) from PolyPlay
Buy ChibiAkuma(s) games now!














































































































Recent New Content
Lesson P64 - Mouse reading on the MSX

Z80 ASM tron clone Photon - Random Numbers and Title Screen

Key reading in DOS - 8086 Assembly Lesson P5

Z80 Tron clone (Photon) - Line Drawing

SpeedTile software Tilemap Engine - Z80 SuperTile map

Introduction and Data Structures - tron clone photon

AMX Mouse reading on the Amstrad CPC

16 color Bitmap Drawing on the TRS-80 CoCo 3

Stereoscopic 3D Special! - Drawing 3D images, 3D Conversion, 3D technologies

Hardware Sprites on the PC Engine / Turbografix

Lesson YQuest10 - Hardware sprites on the Genesis

6809 Lesson 5 - More Maths - Logical Ops, Bit shifts and more


Gaming + more:

Emily The Strange (DS) - Live full playthrough

$150 calculator: Unboxing the Ti-84 Plus CE (eZ80 cpu)










Buy Chibi Akuma(s) from PolyPlay
Buy ChibiAkuma(s) games now!