6809 Assembly programming for the Vectrex

The FM-7 is one of a series of Fujitsu computers released in Japan

With a pair of 6809 CPU's it was widely popular in Japan, and is one of the few 6809 computers released.

In these tutorials we'll learn the about the FM7, and write some simple programs for it


Vectrex
Cpu Main: 1.5mhz 6809
Ram 1k Ram
Rom 32k
Sound AY-3-8912
Max Resolution INFINITE!!!

Vectrex!

OS Calls

Group Address Name AltName DP (Entry/Exit) Details Example
Init $F18B INITALL INTALL $D0 Full Vectrex initialization
Init $F164 INITMSC INTMSC $C8 Initialize misc. parameters
Init $F14C INITPIA INTPIA $D0 Initialize PIA
Init $F272 INITPSG INTPSG $D0 Initialize the ‘REQx’ area (sound mirror).
Init $F533 IREQ INTREQ - Initialize the 'REQZ' area
Init $F000 POWER PWRUP - Power-up handler
Drawing $F2E6 DEFLOK ---C1:C1048576B1:B1048576 $D0 Overcome scan collapse circuitry
Drawing $F192 FRAM20 FRWAIT $D0 Wait for frame boundary (Pause for next frame)
Drawing $F29D INT1Q - $D0 Set beam intensity 1/4 ($1F)
Drawing $F2A5 INT3Q - $D0 Set beam intensity 3/4 ($5F)
Drawing $F2AB INTENS - $D0 Set beam intensity A (0-127)
Drawing $F2A9 INTMAX - $D0 Set beam intensity 4/4 (7F)
Drawing $F2A1 INTMID INT2Q $D0 Set beam intensity 2/4 ($3F)
Drawing $F30C POSIT1 - $D0 Position relative vector List X (1x scale) db Y,X
Drawing $F308 POSIT2 - $D0 Position relative vector (2x scale)
Drawing $F30E POSITB - $D0 Position relative vector list X Scale B
Drawing $F2FC POSITD - $D0 Position relative vector (X,Y)=(B,A) scale 1x
Drawing $F312 POSITN - $D0 Position relative vector (X,Y)=(B,A) scale T1LOLC
Drawing $F310 POSITX - $D0 Release integrators and position beam, lfrom X db Y,X
Drawing $F2F2 POSWID - $D0 Release integrators and position beam using 16-bit (Y,X) values from address X dw Y,X
Drawing $F34F CZERO ZEGO $D0 Depending ZSKIP, zero integrators and set the sample / hold for active
ground.

Drawing $F35B ZEREF ZEREF $D0 Set active ground sample / hold to zero volts.
Drawing $F34A ZERO.DP ZERO.DP $D0 DP=$D0... Zero integrators and set active ground
Drawing $F36B ZERO. ZERO $D0 Zero the integrators only
Drawing $F354 ZEROIT ZEROIT $D0 Zero integrators and set active ground
Diffy $F610 DANROT DROT - Rotate ‘Diffy’ style list A=Angle B=no of Vectors X=Source list U=Dest
Diffy $F433 DASHE DSHDF1 $D0 Draw dashed lines from 'DIFFY' list
Diffy $F434 DASHEL DSHDF $D0 Draw dashed lines from 'DIFFY' list A=Vectors-1 X=List
Diffy $F437 DASHY DASHDF $D0 Draw dashed lines from 'DIFFY' list X
Diffy $F3DF DIFFAB - $D0 Draw from 'DIFFY' style list (B,A)=(X,Y)
Diffy $F3CE DIFFAX - $D0 Draw from 'DIFFY' style list X=List
Diffy $F3D8 DIFFX TDIFFY $D0 Draw from 'DIFFY' style list A=Vectors-1 B=Scale X=List
Diffy $F3DD DIFFY - $D0 Draw from 'DIFFY' style list X=List
Diffy $F3D6 DIFLST - $D0 Draw from 'DIFFY' style list
Diffy $F616 DIFROT ADROT - Rotate ‘DIFFY’ style list X=Source U=Dest ANGLE
Diffy $F3D2 DIFTIM - $D0 Draw from 'DIFFY' style list B=scale X=List
Diffy $F3DA DIFTLS LDIFFY $D0 Draw from 'DIFFY' style list A=Vectors-1, X=List
Diffy $F613 DISROT BDROT - 'DIFFY' style rotate B=vector count X=source list U=Dest
Duffy $F3BE DUFFAB - $D0 Move a single vector from the current beam position using the relative vector values
given in ‘D’ (X,Y)=(B,A)

Duffy $F3AD DUFFAX - $D0 Draw from 'DUFFY' style list X=list
Duffy $F3BC DUFFY - $D0 Draw from 'DUFFY' style list X=list
Duffy $F3BC DUFLTLS TDUFFY $D0 Draw from 'DUFFY' style list B=length X=List
Duffy $F3B5 DUFLST - $D0 Draw from 'DUFFY' style list X=list
Duffy $F3B1 DUFTIM - $D0 Draw from 'DUFFY' style list B=length X=List
Diffy $F3B9 DUFLST
$D0 A=Vectors-1 X=List
Dot $F2D5 DIFDOT - $D0 Draw dots according to 'DIFFY' format X=List pointer
Dot $F2C5 DOT - $D0 Turn on beam for dot
Dot $F2C3 DOTAB - $D0 Draw Dot at relative (X,Y) pos (B,A)
Dot $F2DE DOTPAK DOTPCK $D0 Draw dots according to 'PACKET' format X=list
Dot $F2BE DOTTIM - $D0 Draw one dot from 'DIFFY' style list B=on time X=List
Dot $F2C1 DOTX - $D0 Draw one dot from 'DIFFY' style list X
Packet $F46E DASHY3 DASHPK $D0 Draw dashed lines from 'PACKET' list X
Packet $F408 PAC1X PACK1X $D0 Draw according to ‘Packet’ style list X scale 1x
Packet $F404 PAC2X PACK2X $D0 Draw according to ‘Packet’ style list X scale 2x
Packet $F40E PACB TPACK $D0 Draw from 'PACKET' list X B=Scale
Packet $F410 PACKET - $D0 Draw according to ‘Packet’ style list X
Packet $F40C PACXX LPACK $D0 Draw from 'PACKET' style list X=list
Packet $F61F POTATA PROT - 'PACKET' style rotate A=Angle X=Source List U=Dest List
Packet $F622 POTATE APROT - 'PACKET' style rotate
Raster $F37A POSDRAS MSSPOS $D0 Print $80 terminated String U at (X,Y) relative pos (B,A)
Raster $F378 POSNRAS RSTPOS $D0 Display raster message from U
Raster $F498 RASTER MRASTR $D0 Display raster string from MESSAGE
Raster $F495 RASTUR RASTER $D0 Display raster string from U
Raster $F87C SADD SCRADD - Add contents of score D to BCD at address X
Raster $F880 SADD2 STKADD - Add stack to indicated score
Raster $F85E SHADD BYTADD - Add contents of 'A' to indicated score A = 2-digit BCD number
X = Score field pointer
Raster $F391 SHIPSAT SHIPX $D0 Display markers (count remaining)
Raster $F393 SHIPSHO DSHIP $C8 Display markers (count remaining) A=ascii B=remaining X=Pos
Raster $F373 SIZPRAS RSTSIZ $D0 Display raster message from U
Raster $F38C TEXPOS TXTPOS $D0 Draw Strings from U (0 terminated) dc.b Y,X,"TXT",$80
dc.b Y,X,"TXT",$80
dc.b 0
Raster $F385 TEXSIZ TXTSIZ $D0 Display raster message from U
Controller $F1B4 ENPUT DBNCE $D0 Read controller switches and debounce switch status. (A=Response mask)
Controller $F8D8 HIGHSCR HISCR - Calculate high score and save for logo C=Score Field U=Highscore
Controller $F1BA INPUT - $D0 Read controller buttons
Controller $F7A9 OPTION SELOPT - Fetch number of players and options from player A + B = No of players (0-9)
Controller $F1F8 PANG JOYBIT $D0 Read joystick UDLR
Controller $F1F5 PBANG4 JOYSTK $D0 Read the absolute position of the controller joysticks.
Controller $F84F SCLR - - Clear indicated score X
Controller $F8C7 WINNER - - Determine highest score X or U
Rotate $F610 DANROT DROT - 'DIFFY' style rotate
Rotate $F616 DIFROT ADROT - 'DIFFY' style rotate
Rotate $F613 DISROT BDROT - 'DIFFY' style rotate
Rotate $F61F POTATA PROT - 'PACKET' style rotate
Rotate $F622 POTATE APROT - 'PACKET' style rotate X=Soource U=Dest (ANGLE)
Rotate $F5FF RATOT LROT90 $C8 Rotate a single line A=Initial Y B=Angle
Rotate $F603 ROTAR ALNROT $C8 Rotate a single line A=Initial Y (ANGLE)
Rotate $F601 ROTOR LNROT $C8 Rotate a single line A=Initial Y B=Angle
Maths $F584 ABSVAL ABSAB - Form absolute value for 'A' & 'B' registers
Maths $F58B AOK ABSB - Form absolute value for 'B' register
Maths $F57E BITE DECBIT - Decode bit position A=Bit number (0-7)
Maths $F593 COMPAS CMPASS $C8 Return angle for given delta 'Y:X'
Maths $F5D9 COSGET COSINE - Calculate the cosine of 'A'
Maths $F511 RAND3 - - Calculate new random number from SEED
Maths $F517 RANDOM - - Calculate new random number from SEED
Maths $F663 RCOS LCSINE $C8 Multiply 'LEG' by previous cosine value
Maths $F661 RCOSA MCSINE $C8 Multiply 'A' by previous cosine value
Maths $F65D RSIN LSINE $C8 Multiply 'LEG' by previous sine value
Maths $F65B RSINA MSINE $C8 Multiply 'A' by previous sine value WSINE
Maths $F5EF SINCOS - $C8 Calculate the sine and cosine of 'ANGLE'
Maths $F5DB SINGET SINE $C8 Calculate the sine of 'A'
Misc $F67F BAGAUX BLKMV1 - Transfer A+1 bytes (127 max) from source U destination X
Misc $F545 CLR256
- Clear 256 bytes at address X
Misc $F542 CLRMEM CLREX - Clear executive area of memory ($C800 - $C8FF)
Misc $F53F CLRSON BCLR - Clear 'B' bytes from X
Misc $F55E DEKR DECTMR - Decrement interval timers (XTMR0 – XTMR5)
Misc $F55A DEKR3 D3TMR - Decrement 3 interval timers (XTMR0 – XTMR2)
Misc $F57A DEL - - Delay execution for a minimum of 20 cycles (B=Delay)
Misc $F57D DEL13 - - Delay execution for 13 cycles
Misc $F579 DEL20 - - Delay execution for 20 cycles
Misc $F575 DEL28 - - Delay execution for 28 cycles
Misc $F571 DEL33 - - Delay execution for 33 cycles
Misc $F56D DEL38 - - Delay execution for 38 cycles
Misc $F1AA DPIO - - Set 6809 ‘DP’ register for I/O accesses ($D0)
Misc $F1AF DPRAM - - Set 6809 ‘DP’ register for RAM accesses ($C8)
Misc $F552 FILL BLKFIL - Set a block of memory A=data B=bytes X=dest
Misc $F8FF FINDBOX BXTEST - Symmetric collison test A = Box ‘Y’ dimension (delta ‘Y’)
B = Box ‘X’ dimension (delta ‘X’)
X = Y:X coordinates of point to be tested
Y = Y:X coordinates of box center
Misc $F548 GILL CLRBLK - Clear D bytes of memory from X
Misc $F550 NEGSOM CLR80 - Set B bytes at memory X to $80
Misc $F8E5 OFF1BOX OFF1BX - Off-center symmetric collision test
Misc $F8F3 OFF2BOX OFF2BX - Off-center symmetric collision text
Misc $F683 STFAUX BLKMOV - Transfer ‘A’ bytes (0-127) from source ‘U’ to destination ‘X’
Sound $F92E AXE EXPLOD $C8 Complex explosion sound effect U=table
Sound $F9CA LOUDIN SETAMP $C8 Set amplitude in ‘REQx’ B=Volume
Sound $F259 PSG WRPSG $D0 Write to PSG A=PSG Addr B=PSG data X=mirror
Sound $F284 PSGLPU PSGMIR $D0 Send sound string to PSG from U and mirror X
Sound $F27D PSGLUP PSGLST $D0 Send sound string to PSG from U
Sound $F256 PSGX WRREG $D0 Write to PSG and Morror A=Psg Addr B=PSG Data
Sound $F687 REPLAY - $C8 Set tune Sequence to list U
Sound $F289 REQOUT - $D0 Send 'REQX' to PSG and mirror
Sound $F690 SOPLAY ASPLAY $C8 Set tune sequence with alternate note set X=user not table U=Tune List
Sound $F68D SPLAY - $C8 Set tune Sequence to list U
Sound $F742 XPLAY - $C8 Terminate current tune
Sound $F692 YOPLAY TPLAY $C8 Set tune Sequence to list U

OS Vars

Address Name Details Notes
$C800 REG0 Channel A: Fine tone period
$C801 REG1 Channel A: Course tone period
$C802 REG2 Channel B: Fine tone period
$C803 REG3 Channel B: Course tone period
$C804 REG4 Channel C: Fine tone period
$C805 REG5 Channel C: Course tone period
$C806 REG6 Noise period
$C807 REG7 Tone / Noise enables
$C808 REG8 Channel A: Amplitude
$C809 REG9 Channel B: Amplitude
$C80A REGA Channel C: Amplitude
$C80B REGB Fine envelope period
$C80C REGC Course envelope period
$C80D REGD Envelope shape / cycle
$C80E REGE I/O port data register
$C80F TRIGGR Collective Switch Settings
$C811 EDGE (HEDGES) Used by button handlers
$C812 KEY0 Controller #1 - Switch #0 (Leftmost)
$C813 KEY1 Controller #1 - Switch #1
$C814 KEY2 Controller #1 - Switch #2
$C815 KEY3 Controller #1 - Switch #3 (Rightmost)
$C816 KEY4 Controller #2 - Switch #0 (Leftmost)
$C817 KEY5 Controller #2 - Switch #1
$C818 KEY6 Controller #2 - Switch #2
$C819 KEY7 Controller #2 - Switch #3 (Rightmost)
$C81A POTRES Joystick resolution limit
$C81B POT0 Joystick #1 - 'X' Axis
$C81C POT1 Joystick #1 - 'Y' Axis
$C81D POT2 Joystick #2 - 'X' Axis
$C81E POT3 Joystick #2 - 'Y' Axis
$C81F EPOT0 (DPOT0) Controller #1: Right / left joystick pot enable (must be $00 or $01)
$C820 EPOT1 (DPOT1 Controller #1: Up / down joystick pot enable (must be $00 or $03)
$C821 EPOT2 (DPOT2) Controller #2: Right / left joystick #2 enable (must be $00 or $05)
$C822 EPOT3 (DPOT3) Controller #2: Up / down joystick #2 enable (must be $00 or $07)
$C823 LIST Number Of Vectors to be drawn
$C824 ZSKIP Flag controlling whether integrators will be zeroed: Z=no NZ=Yes
$C825 - $C826 FRAME Frame Counter
$C827 TENSTY Contains the last value used for the intensity setting
$C828 DWELL Dot ‘ON’ time
$C829 DASH Dash pattern for drawing routines
$C82A - $C82B SIZRAS Raster Message Size ($HHWW) $F848=lrg $FC38 = sml
$C82C - $C82D MESAGE Used by string display functions to hold pointer to message to be displayed.
$C82E XTMR0 (X0) ?
$C82F XTMR1 (X1) Countdown timer
$C830 XTMR2 (X2) Countdown timer
$C831 XTMR3 (X3) Countdown timer
$C832 XTMR4 (X4) Countdown timer
$C833 XTMR5 (X5) Countdown timer
$C834 ABSY Working storage for ‘CMPASS’
$C835 ABSX Working storage for ‘CMPASS’
$C836 ANGLE Angle for rotation
$C837 - $C838 WSINE (SINE) Location for parameter passing. Generally contains the last sine value calculated
$C839 – C83A WCSINE (COSINE) Location for parameter passing. Generally contains the last cosine value calculated.
$C83B LEG Executive Working Storage
$C83C LAG Used by transformation functions
$C83D - $C83E FRMTIM (XMSEC) Frame rate
$C83F REQ0 Envelope shape / cycle
$C840 REQ1 Course envelope period
$C841 REQ2 Fine envelope period
$C842 REQ3 Channel C: Amplitude
$C843 REQ4 Channel B: Amplitude
$C844 REQ5 Channel A: Amplitude
$C845 REQ6 Tone / noise enables
$C846 REQ7 Noise period
$C847 REQ8 Channel C: Course tone period
$C848 REQ9 Channel C: Fine tone period
$C849 REQA Channel B: Course tone period
$C84A REQB Channel B: Fine tone period
$C84B REQC Channel A: Course tone period
$C84C REQD Channel A: Fine tone period
$C84D - $C84E DOREMI Note table pointer
$C84F - $C850 FADE Working storage for ‘SELOPT’ and tune player subroutines
$C851 VIBE Working storage for tune player subroutines
$C853 - $C854 TUNE ?
$C855 NEWGEN Working storage for tune player subroutines
$C856 TSTAT Working storage for tune player subroutines
$C857 RESTC Working storage for tune player subroutines
$C858 RATEA Working storage for ‘EXPLOD’
$C859 VIBA Working storage for ‘EXPLOD’
$C85A RATEB Working storage for ‘EXPLOD’
$C85B VIBB Working storage for ‘EXPLOD’
$C85C RATEC Working storage for ‘EXPLOD’
$C85D VIBC Working storage for ‘EXPLOD’
$C85E FADEA Working storage for ‘SELOPT’ and tune player subroutines
$C85F FADEB Working storage for ‘SELOPT’ and tune player subroutines
$C860 FADEC Working storage for ‘SELOPT’ and tune player subroutines
$C861 - $C862 TONEA Working storage for ‘SELOPT’ and tune player subroutines
$C863 - $C864 TONEB Working storage for ‘SELOPT’ and tune player subroutines
$C865 - $C866 TONEC Working storage for tune player subroutines
$C86A GAP Allocated but not used by Mine Storm or Executive
$C86F - $C870 F1FREQ Allocated but not used by Mine Store or Executive
$C80F - $C810 TRIGGR Current controller button status.
$C867 SATUS Working storage for ‘EXPLOD’
$C868 LATUS Allocated but not used by Mine Storm or Executive
$C869 XATUS Allocated but not used by Mine Storm or Executive
$C86B - $C86C B1FREQ Allocated but not used by Mine Storm or Executive
$C86D - $C86E B2FREQ Allocated but not used by Mine Store or Executive
$C871 FEAST Allocated but not used by Mine Storm or Executive
$C872 PEDGE Allocated but not used by Mine Storm or Executive
$C873 NEDGE Allocated but not used by Mine Storm or Executive
$C874 – $C875 K1FREQ Allocated but not used by Mine Storm or Executive
$C876 BACON Allocated but not used by Mine Storm or Executive
$C877 XACON Working storage for ‘EXPLOD’
$C878 SPEKT Allocated but not used by Mine Store or Executive
$C879 PLAYRS (PLAYRZ) Number of players ($01 - $09)
$C87A OPTION (GAMZ) Number of player options ($01 - $09)
$C87B - $C87C SEED Seed used by the random number generator
$C87D – C87F RANCID Working storage for random number generators
$C880 SBTN First memory location available for use by a game
$C881 SJOY Joystick mask (used by MineStorm)
$C883 ETMP1 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C884 ETMP2 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C885 ETMP3 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C886 ETMP4 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C887 ETMP5 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C888 ETMP6 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C889 ETMP7 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C88A ETMP8 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C88B ETMP9 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C88C ETMP10 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C88F TEMP1 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C890 TEMP2 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C891 TEMP3 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C892 TEMP4 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C893 TEMP5 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C894 TEMP6 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C895 TEMP7 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C896 TEMP8 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C897 TEMP9 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C898 - $C89A TEMP10 Mine Storm: Temporary working storage
$C89B ACTPLY Mine Storm: Currently active player ($00 or $02)
$C89C - $C89E TMR1 Mine Storm: Timer
$C89F - $C8A1 TMR2 Mine Storm: Timer
$C8A2 - $C8A4 TMR3 Mine Storm: Timer
$C8A5 - $C8A7 TMR4 Mine Storm: Timer
$C8A8 - $C8AE SCOR1 Holds player 1’s score
$C8AF – C8B5 SCOR2 Holds player 2’s score
$C8EB - $C8F1 HISCOR (HEIGH) Contains ASCII high score

Hardware Registers

$D000 8-bit port ‘B’ (Control bits) [CNTRL]
$D001 8-bit port ‘A’ (DAC and PSC data) [DAC]
$D002 Port ‘B’ direction control [DCNTRL]
$D003 Port ‘A’ direction control [DDAC]
$D004-7 Timer #1 [T1LOLC, T1HOC, T1LOL, T1HOL]
$D008-9 Timer #2 [T2LOLC, T2HOC]
$D00A Shift register [SHIFT]
$D00B Auxiliary control register [ACNTRL]
$D00C Peripheral control register [PCNTRL]
$D00D Interrupt flag register [IFLAG]
$D00E Interrupt enable register [IENABL]
$D00F ORA


Character Map

The Vectrex has some character printing routines - they have a built in character map, which has upper case and a few system characters.


Direct Page

The Vectrex uses two Direct page settings

$C8 points to RAM
$D0 points to Hardware registers

With ASW (Our assembler) use ASSUME dpr:$xx to tell the assembler where the direct page is... this is called SETDP on some assemblers.


AY Registers

The procedure for setting and reading AY registers is not quite direct... the method is shown here Select Register:
RegNum -> $D001
#$19 -> $D000
#$01 -> $D000
Write Selected Register:
New Value -> $D001
#$11 -> $D000
#$01 -> $D000



 

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