6502 Assembly programming for the Atari 800 & 5200

The early Atari games consoles weren't a true 6502, but by the time of the Atari 5200 things had gotten pretty good!

The Atari 800 and 5200 are basically the same machine, and we can write games that work on both pretty easilly... in fact the differences are INTENTIONAL.. they didn't want games to work on both the computer and console, as they were different operating companies, so the address of the sound and graphics chips were moved to stop the games working!
We'll be covering the Atari 5200 console, and Atari 800 home computer in these tutorials.

Atari 5200 Atari 800
Cpu 1.79 mhz 6502
1mhz 65C02
Ram 16k  48k
Resolution 320x200 @ 2 color
160x200 @ 4 color
320x200 @ 2 color
160x200 @ 4 color
Sprites 8x128 pixel sprites... 5 onscreen 8x128 pixel sprites... 5 onscreen
Sound 4 channel POKEY 4 channel POKEY

ChibiAkumas Tutorials

Lesson P2 - Bitmap Functions on the Atari 800 / 5200

Lesson P11 - Joystick Reading on the Atari 800 / 5200

Lesson P18 - Palette definitions on the Atari 800 / 5200

Lesson P23 - Sound on the Atari 800 / 5200

Differences between the Atari 800 and 5200
The Atari 800 and 5200 have some differences, The GTIA (graphics) and POKEY (sound and io)  are at different addreses, also the default cartridge base address and size are different.
The 800 cartridges are 8K, the 5200 has 32k ones.

Atari 5200 Atari 800
Cart ROM $4000 $A000
GTIA (Graphics) $C000 $D000
POKEY (Sound) $E800 $D200
PIA Not present $D300
ANTIC $D400 $D400

Most documentation seems to use the Atari 800 addresses... so we'll do the same... if you're using an Atari 5200 just change $D0 to $C0 for GTIA code, and $D2 to $E8 for POKEY code... of course, it's best to just define a symbol for each system in your ASM code - which is what our example ASM code will do!

Screen Modes
In this tutorial we'll be looking at two screen modes...

ANTIC mode F  is a 4 color 160x192 pixel screen mode with 'Rectangular' pixels like Mode 0 on the CPC... the 4 colors are defined by 4 registers
COLBK (&D01A) sets the background... Colors 1-3 are set by COLPF0 ($D016), COLPF1 ($D017) and COLPF2 ($D018)

ANTIC mode E is a 2 color 320x192 pixel mode screen with roughly square pixels.. technically it only has one color - with two shades... COLBK (&D01A) sets the background brightness and color, and foreground color... and COLPF0 ($D016) sets the foreground brightness

Screen Display lists

The screen is defined in a similar way to the Elan Enterprise... we provide a Display List... which provides commands to the screen hardware... we can do clever tricks like have different screen modes for different areas of the screen if we want - but we won't be using them in this tutorial - we'll just have a simple list that has the screen all the same mode!...
Our Screen will start at &2000...  unfortunately we do have to do some tricks, to allow our screen to 'step' over the 4k boundary at $3000 (otherwise it would wrap) - we do this by putting a new 'start memory position' command  ($40+screen mode) - to move the memory position to $3000 - getting over the wrap limitation!

We also have to put 3 blank strips at the top, and  a 'loop' in at the end of the screen, to allow normal working of the screen!

You'll need to set Smode to F or E for this example code to work!
Just creating a display list isn't enough, we need oto put it in the display list registers at $D402-$D403, and turn the DMA control on.

This will start the screen drawing with our chosen mode!

The following byte commands can be used in a display list:

Command  Function
$x0-$xF  Screen mode change
$70  8 Blank lines
$4x $BB $AA  Start Screen mode x at address $AABB
 $41 $BB $AA   Wait for Vblank, and restart display list at $AABB

Screen Modes
The Atari 800 & 5200 have a variety of modes - we can change mode every line of the screen - but some modes are 'taller' than others... here are the options - note: we're only going to look at modes E and F in these tutorials

Colors Lines Width Bytes per
Screen Ram
2 0 2 8 40 40 960
3 N/A 2 10 40 40 760
4 N/A 4 8 40 40 960
5 N/A 4 16 40 40 480
6 1 5 8 20 20 480
7 2 5 16 20 20 240
8 3 4 8 40 10 240
9 4 2 4 80 10 480
A 5 4 4 80 20 960
B 6 2 2 160 20 1920
C N/A 2 1 160 20 3840
D 7 4 2 160 40 3840
E N/A 4 1 160 40 7680
F 8 2 1 320 40 7680

Atari 800 / 5200 Palette

 xF  0F  1F  2F  3F  4F  5F  6F  7F  8F  9F  AF  BF  CF  DF  EF  FF
x8 08 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98 A8 B8 C8 D8 E8 F8
x0 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 A0 B0 C0 D0 E0 F0

Atari 800 / 5200 Sprites
The Atari's hardware sprites are very weird!

Basically each sprite is 8 pixels wide and just 2 colors (1+transparent)... there are 4 'normal' ones that are 8 pixels wide.... and 4 missile sprites that are just 2(!) pixels wide... but we can position them together to give us 5 sprites.

Despite being 8 pixels wide... each sprite is up to 128  pixels tall (or 256 in hires mode) - the entire height of the screen!... if you can't guess this is because the systems is changing the data each rasterline.

The data used to draw the sprite is taken from a single pointer at $D407... if this pointer is set to $18 then all the sprites will use the $1800-$1FFF range - the exact address differs depending on whether the Resolution bit of $D400 is set to 0 or 1... in Res1 Sprites will be at $1800+$400 - $1C00 ... or in Res0 $1800+$200 = $1A00

On an Atari 800 where the GTIA is at $D000 this would give the following addresses for the sprite settings  GTIA is at $C000 on the 5200)

The addresses controling the sprite are shown below... note we cannot set vertical position - we just write the sprite bitmap to a different address in the 'strip'  of memory (eg between $1C00-$1CFF)

Player Res0 Data Res1Data Width Color Xpos
0 $1A00+ypos $1C00+ypos $D008 $D012 $D000
1 $1A80+ypos $1D00+ypos $D009 $D013 $D001
2 $1B00+ypos $1E00+ypos $D00A $D014 $D002
3 $1B80+ypos $1F00+ypos $D00B $D015 $D003
4 (Missiles) $1980 $1B00 $D00C $D019* /
*Missiles can be configured to use all 4 player colors for each 2 bit strip - or $D019 for all 4 2 bit strips ... this is set by PRIOR ($D01B)

The Sprites can be in front of, or behind the background... register $D01B (PRIOR) controls the order... and allows all 4 missiles to use color defined at $D019 as the sprite color - instead of the 4 player colors!
Note PRIOR is at $D01B... it seems to be incorrectly  reported as $D10B or $D21B in some documentation!!!

To make use of sprites, we need to set the addresses shown above for the player sprite attributes, we also need to turn sprites on!

The example code to the right should do the job! note you needto set symbol GTIA to $D000 on the Atari 800, or $C000 on the Atari 5200
        lda #%00111110
        sta $D400            ;DMA control (SDMCTL)
        lda #$18 ;Sprites will be at $1800+$300 (or +$180 in low res mode)
        sta $D407    ;Store player sprite base
        lda #%00000011
        sta GTIA+$001D    ;Graphics Control (GRACTL)
        lda #%00010001   ;Priority: sprite 5 to use color 3
        sta GTIA+$1B        ;and put sprites in front of background

Atari 800 / 5200 Sprite Registers

Group Name Description Address A80 Address A52 Bits Notes
GTIA HPOSP0 horizontal position of player 0 $D000 $C000

GTIA HPOSP1 horizontal position of player 1 $D001 $C001

GTIA HPOSP2 horizontal position of player 2 $D002 $C002

GTIA HPOSP3 horizontal position of player 3 $D003 $C003

GTIA HPOSM0 horizontal position of missile 0 (Player 4) $D004 $C004

GTIA HPOSM1 horizontal position of missile 1 (Player 4) $D005 $C005

GTIA HPOSM2 horizontal position of missile 2 (Player 4) $D006 $C006

GTIA HOPSM3 horizontal position of missile 3 (Player 4) $D007 $C007

GTIA SIZEP0 player 0 size $D008 $C008 ------WW Width of sprite (0-3)
GTIA SIZEP1 player 1 size $D009 $C009 ------WW Width of sprite (0-3)
GTIA SIZEP2 player 2 size $D00A $C00A ------WW Width of sprite (0-3)
GTIA SIZEP3 player 3 size $D00B $C00B ------WW Width of sprite (0-3)
GTIA SIZEM missile size $D00C $C00C wwWWwwWW Width of sprite (Need to set all 4 parts)
GTIA GRAFP0 player 0 graphics $D00D $C00D
(Used by DMA)
GTIA GRAFP1 player 1 graphics $D00E $C00E
(Used by DMA)
GTIA GRAFP2 player 2 graphics $D00F $C00F
(Used by DMA)
GTIA GRAFP3 player 3 graphics $D010 $C010
(Used by DMA)
GTIA GRAFM missile graphics $D011 $C011
(Used by DMA)
GTIA COLPM0 color/brightness, player/missile 0 $D012 $C012

GTIA COLPM1 color/brightness, player/missile 1 $D013 $C013

GTIA COLPM2 color/brightness, player/missile 2 $D014 $C014

GTIA COLPM3 color/brightness, player/missile 3 $D015 $C015

GTIA COLPF3 color/brightness of setcolor 3 / Player 5 (missile) $D019 $C019

GTIA PRIOR p/m priority and GTIA mode $D01B $C01B GGmMpppp G=gtia mode (0=normal) C=multiColor M=Missile (player 5) pppp=priority setting (1=sprites in front 4=behind)
GTIA GRACTL graphics control $D01D $C01D ------L45 Latch Trigger / Enable 4 player / enable 5 (missiles)
ANTIC DMACTL Direct Memory access control (DMA) $D400 $C400

ANTIC PMBASE player/missile address / 256 $D407 $C407

Pokey Sound

Group Name Description Address A80 Address A52 Bits Meaning
POKEY AUDF1 Audio frequency 1 control $D200 $E800 FFFFFFFF F=Frequency (0=highest tone)
POKEY AUDC1 Audio channel 1 control $D201 $E801 NNNNVVVV N=Noise (0=noise / 10=Square wave)
POKEY AUDF2 Audio frequency 2 control $D202 $E802 FFFFFFFF F=Frequency (0=highest tone)
POKEY AUDC2 Audio channel 2 control $D203 $E803 NNNNVVVV N=Noise (0=noise / 10=Square wave)
POKEY AUDF3 Audio frequency 3 control $D204 $E804 FFFFFFFF F=Frequency (0=highest tone)
POKEY AUDC3 Audio channel 3 control $D205 $E805 NNNNVVVV N=Noise (0=noise / 10=Square wave)
POKEY AUDF4 Audio frequency 4 control $D206 $E806 FFFFFFFF F=Frequency (0=highest tone)
POKEY AUDC4 Audio channel 4 control $D207 $E807 NNNNVVVV N=Noise (0=noise / 10=Square wave)
POKEY AUDCTL general audio control $D208 $E808 N1234HHS N=Noise bit depth 1234=Channel Clocks HH=highpass filters S=main clockspeed

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