68000 Assembly programming for the Sharp x68000 (x68k)

The X68000 is the Japanese exclusive PC type computer... with hardware virtually identical to the Capcom CPS hardware, it has great arcade ports, to the extent that many arcade games were developed on it!

Released in 1987, it had hardware sprites and FM sound long before the IBM PC, however it's DOS-like Human68k is easy for someone used to the PC to pick up.

The X6800 is instantly recognizable by it's 'Twin Tower' (Manhattan) design, unfortunately, its continuing popularity means it's expensive to buy, and it's power supply is prone to failure... it also needs a special keyboard and mouse - and cannot use PS2, which adds to the cost of ownership... it can however use MSX joypads!
Lets take a look at the X68000 specs!

Specs:

x68000 base model
Cpu 10mhz
Ram 1MB
Vram 1MB
Resolution 768x512... 512x512... 256,256
Bitmap planes 4 @ 512x512 16 color
Max Sprites 128 sprites 16 color  (16x16 px 32 per line)
Sound chip FM (YM2151) + ADPCM


ChibiAkumas Tutorials

    Lesson P1 - Bitmap Functions on the X68000

Lesson P7 - Joystick Reading on the X68000

Lesson P13 - Palette definitions on the X68000

Lesson P18 - Sound on the X68000

Lesson P24 - Hardware Sprites on the X68000




Documentation
GamesX - Great source of English x68000 info
X68000 technical data book - It's in Japanese, but I've needed it many times in my programming, so what can you do?
YM2151 details - Full details on the X68000 FM sound Chip

The Xfile format
Executable files on the X68000 are in 'Xfile' format...

Vasm's linker cannot make this file, so we'll hhave to build it ourselves, fortunately it's easy to create a simple xfile

we just need to add 64 bytes to the start of our program code, &4855 ("HU" in ascii) at byte &00 and a 32 bit length in BIG ENDIAN at byte 12

it sounds strage, but our code is considered the 'Text segment'... we don't really need the other segments for our hello world type example.

The Data segment follows the code in the text segment, it's start is denoted by the '.data' command in our asm code

After our 'Data Segment' there is a 'Relocation Table'... because we don't know where our program will end up in memory, if we try to load the address of part of the data we have, we don't know where it will be...

If we use LEA (Load effective address) then we will get the correct address, however if we do not use this command, then the address our command uses will need to be corrected by the operating system, and this is what the Address relocation table does... it stores all the addresses of the code that need to be fixed with the correct address of the data as it appears after the xfile is loaded

The Symbol table is our debugging infomation, it stores the addresses of the labels in our code - we don't need it if we just want to run a program

the latest builds of VASM (since 1.8e) can output directly to XFIle with the -Fxfile switch
addr bytes value notes
$000000 2 $4855 Xfile id
$000002 2 $0000 Reserved area
$000004 4 Base Addr Linker's Base address
$000008 4 Start addr Start address from Base addr
$00000C 4 Text size Text segment size
$000010 4 Data Size Data segment size
$000014 4 Heap Size BSS+Stack
$000018 4 RelocTblSz Address Relocation Table size
$00001C 4 SymbTblSz Symbol table size
$000020 32 $00 Reserved area
$000040 TextSz
Text Segment
Offset1 DataSz
Data Segment
Offset2 RelocTblSz
Address Relocation Table
Offset3 SymbTblSz
Symbol Table

Offset1=$40+TextSz
Offset2=Offset1+DataSz
Offset3=Offset2+RelocTblSz

The Xfile format - broken down
We're going to use the official x68000 assembler (on an emulator) to compile an ASM file, and see the result in the binary Xfile...

The example to the right doesn't really do anything, it's just got some different contents, which should be easy to see in the resulting output.

There is a code (text) segment, a data segment, and some symbols

We'll compile it with AS, and look what happens!
The Assembler will produce this output if we use the -p option to output the listing... we've also included -d to tell it to output the symbols to the binary file.
Once we've used LK to convert the object file to a X file, we can see the result.

The binary file is shown to the right, we can see the following sections...
The Header is at the start of the file
The Code (text) segment - it's size can be seen in the header
The Data segment - it's size is also in the header
The Symbol table - it's size is also in the header.
The Relocation table has the addresses of code which needs it's addresses altering - it's size is also in the header


Supervisor mode and XM6

On WinX68kHighSpeed we can access hardware registers in USER mode, but emulator XM6 is more strict.

We will need to enter 'Supervisor mode'... we do this with DOSCALL function _SUPER ($FF20)...

Thanks to viewer 'Mugsy' for this info


The Symbol table

The symbol table is made up of a series of entries in the format shown below.
Address Bytes Function
$00 2 Type (see table to right)
$02 4 value
$06 ?? Zero Terminated String (rounded to even byte)
Type Format of symbol
$0003 common rcommon rlcommon
$0200 absolute rdata rbss rstack rldata rlbss rlstack
$0201 text
$0202 data
$0203 bss
$0204 stack

Using the Sharp/Hudson x68k assembler

The X68000's assembler is pretty easy to use, in fact it may be easier than the PC ones! to compile prog.asm we just type:
    AS prog.asm
    LK prog.o
This will output an file prog.x ... which you can run from the command line

A more advanced use of AS is:
    AS -p prog.lst -d prog.asm

-p file.name will save the listing to a text file

-d will include debugging symbols in the output

You can get the assembler here


Using ED.X - the x68k text editor
You may wish to do your assembly programming on the x68 itself, but even if you don't you may need to edit batch files and settings files on your x68 emulator.

Fortunately, the x68 has a built in editor called ED.X - it's pretty easy to use, but you'll need to know the basic keypresses to save and load your work. the most useful keypresses are show to the right.

A full translated copy of the Edit help is shown below
Keypress Command
ESC-E Save All files and Exit
ESC-T Rename file
ESC-X Save and exit
ESC-Q Don't save and Quit
ESC-O Reset to last save

ED.HLP translated contents





CTRLキー 機能一覧 CTRL Key Command List
CTRL+A カーソルを1語後方(←)に移動 Move the cursor to one word (←)
CTRL+B カーソルを行の左端(または右端)に移動 Move the cursor to the left end (or right end) of the line
CTRL+C 画面をロールアップ Roll up the screen
CTRL+D カーソルを1文字右に移動 Move the cursor to the right
CTRL+E カーソルを1行上に移動 Move the cursor to one line
CTRL+F カーソルを1語前方(→)に移動 Move the cursor to one word (→)
CTRL+G 1文字削除 Remove one letter
CTRL+H バックスペース Backspace
CTRL+I 水平タブ Horizontal tab
CTRL+J ヘルプ画面の表示 Help screen display
CTRL+K カーソル位置から行末までの削除 Remove from cursor position to end
CTRL+L 削除文字列バッファの内容を挿入 Insert the contents of the delete string buffer
CTRL+M 改行と行分割(行分割はインサート状態の時のみ) Line breaks and row division (line division only when insert state)
CTRL+N カーソル行の上に1行挿入 1 line inserted on the cursor line
CTRL+O 挿入ON/OFF Insertion ON / OFF
CTRL+P カーソルを右端に移動 Move the cursor to the right edge
CTRL+Q カーソルを左端に移動 Move the cursor to the left
CTRL+R 画面をロールダウン Roll down the screen
CTRL+S カーソルを1文字左に移動 Move the cursor to the left one character
CTRL+T 1語削除 1 word delete
CTRL+U 行頭からカーソルの直前までを削除 Remove from the beginning to just before the cursor
CTRL+V コントロールコードの入力 Control code input
CTRL+W 画面を1行分ロールダウン Roll down one line of screen
CTRL+X カーソルを1行下に移動 Move the cursor down one row
CTRL+Y 1行削除 ---->削除文字列バッファへ移動 1 row delete ---> Move to delete string buffer
CTRL+Z 画面を1行分ロールアップ Roll up one line of screen
CTRL+[ ESCコマンド ESC command
CTRL+\ カレントワード後方検索 Current word after retrieval search
CTRL+] 大文字・小文字変換 Uppercase and lower case conversion
CTRL+^ カレントワード前方検索 Current word forward search
CTRL+_ ファイル終端記号 File termination symbol




ESC コマンド一覧 ESC Command List
(ESC+@) キーボードマクロの定義 Keyboard macro definition
(ESC+A) ファィルの切り替え(昇順) File switching (ascending order)
(ESC+B) ファィルの先頭 First of the File
(ESC+C) 子プロセスの実行 Run child process
(ESC+D) ファィルの切り替え(降順) File switching (descending order)
(ESC+E) 編集中の全部のテキストをセーブしエディタを終了する Save all text while editing and exit the editor
(ESC+F) 新しいファイルの編集 Edit new file
(ESC+nG) カットバッッファの内容をカーソル位置にn回複写 N times in the cursor position of the contents of the cut buffer
(ESC+H) 現在の編集テキストをセーブする。編集は継続 Save the current edit text. Edit continues
(ESC+I) タブ文字の表示/非表示 View / Hide Tab Characters
(ESC+J) 文字列の連続置換(前方) 確認あり Continuous replacement of strings (forward) confirmation
(ESC+K) 現在の編集テキストをセーブせずに編集を終了する End editing without saving the current edit text
(ESC+L) 文字列の連続置換(後方) 確認あり Continuous replacement of strings (rear) confirmation
(ESC+M) 改行文字の表示/非表示 Show / hide newline characters
(ESC+N) 前方検索 Forward search
(ESC+O) 現在の編集テキストの編集を最初からやり直す Return the editing of the current edit text from the beginning
(ESC+nP) カーソル位置からn行カットバッファに移動 Move from cursor position to n line cut buffer
(ESC+Q) テキストをセーブせずに強制的にエディタを終了する Forced to end the editor without saving the text
(ESC+R) 文字列の連続置換(前方) 確認なし Continuous replacement of strings (forward) without confirmation
(ESC+S) 後方検索 Rear search
(ESC+T) 現在の編集テキストのファィル名を変更する Change File Name of Current Edit Text
(ESC+U) 文字列の連続置換(後方) 確認なし Continuous replacement of strings (rear) no confirmation
(ESC+V) タグジャンプ Tag jump
(ESC+W) ファィルの書き出し File export
(ESC+X) 現テキストのセーブと編集の終了 Current text save and edit end
(ESC+Y) ファィルの読み込み File loading
(ESC+Z) ファィル最終行 File last line
(ESC+[) カレント前方置換(確認なし) Current front substitution (no confirmation)
(ESC+\) カレント後方置換(確認なし) Current rear replacement (without confirmation)
(ESC+]) 大文字/小文字変換 Uppercase / lower case conversion
(ESC+^) 前方置換(表示なし) Forward replacement (without display)
(ESC+_) 後方置換(表示なし) Backward replacement (without display)
(ESC+NUM) 指定行番号へのジャンプ Jump to the specified number




ファンクションキー 機能一覧 Function key function list
F-1 ファィルの先頭 First of the File
F-2 ファィル最終行 File last line
F-3 文字列の連続置換(確認なし)(前方) Continuous replacement of strings (no confirmation) (forward)
F-4 文字列の前方↓検索 Predemary of strings ↓ search
F-5 カレント検索文字列の前方↓検索 Foreign front of the current search string
F-6 行単位でのテキストの選択操作を開始(範囲) Starting the text selection operation in row units (range)
F-7 選択したテキストをカットバッファへ移動する Move the selected text to the cut buffer
F-8 選択したテキストをカットバッファへ複写する Copy the selected text to the cut buffer
F-9 行カットバッファの内容をカーソル行の上に挿入 Insert the contents of the row cut buffer onto the cursor line
F-10 行の二重化 F-9 Insert the contents of the line cut buffer onto the cursor line
SHIFT F-1 新編集 New edit
SHIFT F-2 再編集 re-edit
SHIFT F-3 文字列の連続置換(確認なし)(後方) Continuous replacement of strings (without confirmation) (backward)
SHIFT F-4 文字列の後方↑検索 Backward search for strings
SHIFT F-5 カレント検索文字列の後方↑検索 Backward ↑ search for the current search string
SHIFT F-6 ファィルの切り替え(昇順) File switching (ascending order)
SHIFT F-7 ファィルの切り替え(降順) File switching (descending order)
SHIFT F-8 ファィルの読み込み File loading
SHIFT F-9 ファィルの書き出し File export
SHIFT F-10
子プロセスの実行 Run child process




単一キー 機能一覧 Single key function list
ROLLUP 画面をロールアップ Roll up the screen
ROLLDWN 画面をロールダウン Roll down the screen
CR 改行と行分割(行分割はインサート状態の時のみ) Line breaks and row division (line division only when insert state)
TAB 水平タブ Horizontal tab
BS バックスペース Backspace
INS 挿入MODE ON /OFF Insertion MODE ON / OFF
DEL 1文字削除 Remove one letter
CLR ファィル終了記号の表示 Display File End Sign
HELP ヘルプ画面の表示 Help screen display
HOME ホーム位置に移動 Move to home position
LEFT カーソルを左に移動 Move the cursor to the left
RIGHT カーソルを右に移動 Move the cursor to the right
UP カーソルを上に移動 Move the cursor up
DOWN カーソルを下に移動 Move the cursor down
ESC ESCコマンド ESC command
UNDO キーボードマクロの実行 Running a keyboard macro




起動時のオプション Startup option
-A ヘルプファイルのパス指定 Help file path specification
-A デフォルトは ed.x のあるパス The default is the path with ed.x
-B テキストの終わりを物理的なデータの終わりで認識 Recognize the end of the text at the end of physical data
-B することを指定する Specify that

デフォルトは テキストファイルの終わりを EOF(&H1A) The default is EOF (& H1A) the end of the text file

コードで認識します Recognize in code
-E ファィル終了記号の表示を指定します Specifies the display of the file end symbol
-H 水平タブの最大表示幅を指定します ( 2 / 4 / 6 / 8 ) Specifies the maximum display width of the horizontal tab (2/4/6 / 8)
-L 改行文字の表示を指定します Specify the display of newline characters
-L デフォルトは 表示しません Default does not display
-M 一行の長さを指定します Specify a line length
-M (128/256/512/1024 BYTES) (128/256/512/1024 bytes)
-S 画面サイズを指定します Specify the screen size
-S 1 96(XPOS)*30 1 96 (XPOS) * 30

2 64(XPOS)*30 2 64 (XPOS) * 30
-T タブ文字の表示を指定します Specify the display of tab characters




Hello World for the X68000
We can build Hello World with VASM, or the official assembler.

If we build with VASM we should output in binary, and add our own Xfile header so we can run the program

the Sharp/Hudson assembler and linker will output a complete xfile for us!
VASM version Sharp/Hudson x68 assembler
    pea mes            ;Push message addres
    dc.w $ff09        ;show string
    addq.l #4,SP    ;skip over pushed message
    dc.w $FF00        ;return
mes:    dc.b 'Hello World',$0D,$0A,0
    pea mes
    .dc.w $ff09
    addq.l #4,sp
    .dc.w $ff00
mes:    .dc.b 'hello',$0d,$0a,0

Setting Graphics Modes

Rather than using system calls, We can select a graphics mode by writing the correct values to registers $e80000-$e8002e
Here are some sample values for a 16 color screen ... you will need to change the values in the dark section if you want 256 colors.


High Resolution Low Resolution
RegNum 768x512 512x512 512x256 256x256 512x512 512x256 256x256 Register Purpose
E80000 $89 $5B $5B $2B $4B $4B $25  R00 Horizontal total
E80002 $0E $09 $09 $04 $03 $03 $01  R01 Horizontal synchronization end position timing
E80004 $1C $11 $11 $06 $04 $05 $00  R02 Horizontal display start position
E80006 $7C $51 $51 $26 $45 $45 $20  R03 Horizontal display end position
E80008 $237 $237 $237 $237 $103 $103 $103  R04 Vertical total
E8000A $05 $05 $05 $05 $02 $02 $02  R05 Vertical synchronization end position timing
E8000C $28 $28 $28 $28 $10 $10 $10  R06 Vertical display start position
E8000E $228 $228 $228 $228 $100 $100 $100  R07 Vertical display end position
E80010 $1B $1B $1B $1B $2C $2C $24  R08 External synchronization horizontal adjust: Horizontal position tuning 
E80028 $416
$415
$411 $410 $05 $01 $00  R20 Memory mode/Display mode control
E82400 $04
$04 $04
$04 $00 $00 $00  R0 (Screen mode initialization) - Detail
E82500 $2E4 $2E4 $2E4 $2E4 $2E4 $2E4 $2E4  R1 (Priority control) - Priority (Sprites foreground)
E82600 $DF
$DF $DF $DF $C1 $C1 $C1  R2 (Special priority/screen display) - Screen On / Sprites On
EB0808 $200 $200 $200 $200 $200 $200 $200  BG Control (Sprites Visible, slow writing)
EB080A
$FF $FF $FF $FF $FF $25  Sprite H Total
EB080C
$15 $15 $0A $09 $09 $04  Sprite H Disp
EB080E
$28 $28 $28 $10 $10 $10  Sprite V Disp
EB0810
$15 $11 $10 $05 $01 $00  Sprite Res %---FVVHH

Palette Definitions
Graphics mode palettes are defined by the registers from $e82000... each takes 2 bytes, so color 0 is at $e82000, and color 1 is at $e82002... there are up to 256 depending on screen mode.

Each color is defined by 5 bits per channel in the format shown to the right

Text palettes are in the same format from $e82200 - there are 16

Sprite palettes are in the same format from $e82200 - there are 240
 F  E  D  C  B  A  9  8    7  6  5  4  3  2  1  0
G4 G3 G2 G1 G0 R4 R3 R2
R1 R0 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 -


Memory Map and Hardware Registers
address vector
Function
$000000 $00
SSP after reset
$000004 $01
PC after reset
$000008 $02
Bus error
$00000c $03
Address error
$000010 $04
Unknown instruction
$000014 $05
Division by 0
$000018 $06
CHK instruction
$00001c $07
TRAPV instruction, FTRAPcc instruction
$000020 $08
Privilege violation
$000024 $09
Trace exception
$000028 $0a
Unsupported instruction line 1010 emulator (SX call)
$00002c $0b
? line 1111 emulator (DOS call, floating point operation)
$000030 $0c
Unused
$000034 $0d
FPU ?????????????????
$000038 $0e
? ?????????????
$000034 $0d
FPU Protocol violation exception handling
$000038 $0e ''
Formatting error exception handling
$00003c $0f
Uninitialized Interrupt
$000040 $10
Unused
$000044 $11
?
$000048 $12
?
$00004c $13
?
$000050 $14
?
$000054 $15
?
$000058 $16
?
$00005c $17
?
$000060 $18
Spurious Interrupt
$000064 $19
Level 1 Interrupt (auto vector)
$000068 $1a
?
$00006c $1b
?
$000070 $1c
?
$000074 $1d
?
$000078 $1e
?
$00007c $1f
?
$000080 $20
trap #0
$000084 $21
? #1
$000088 $22
? #2
$00008c $23
? #3
$000090 $24
? #4
$000094 $25
? #5
$000098 $26
? #6
$00009c $27
? #7
$0000a0 $28
? #8 (reserved for system)
$0000a4 $29
? #9 (OS debugger)
$0000a8 $2a
? #10 (reset & power off)
$0000ac $2b
? #11 (BREAK key)
$0000b0 $2c
? #12 (COPY key)
$0000b4 $2d
? #13 (CTRL+C)
$0000b8 $2e
? #14 (error processing)
$0000bc $2f
? #15 (IOCS call)
$0000c0 $30
FPU BSUN
$0000c0 $30
FPU BSUN
$0000c4 $31
? INEX1,INEX2
$0000c8 $32
? DZ
$0000cc $33
? UNFL
$0000d0 $34
? OPERR
$0000d4 $35
? OVFL
$0000d8 $36
? SNAN
$0000dc $37
???
$0000dc $37
Unused
$0000e0 $38
MMU
$0000e4 $39
?
$0000e8 $3a
?
$0000ec $3b
Unused
$0000fc $3f
Unused
$000100 $40
MFP RTC Alarm/1Hz
$000104 $41
MFP External power OFF
$000118 $42
MFP Front switch OFF
$00010c $43
MFP FM Audio source
$000110 $44
MFP Timer-D (Used with BG processing)
$000114 $45
MFP Timer-C (Mouse/cursor/FDD control, etc.)
$000118 $46
MFP V-DISP
$00011c $47
MFP RTC Clock
$000120 $48
MFP Timer-B
$000124 $49
MFP Key serial output error
$000128 $4a
MFP Key serial output empty
$00012c $4b
MFP Key serial input error
$000130 $4c
MFP Key serial input
$000134 $4d
MFP Timer-A
$000138 $4e
MFP CRTC*IRQ
$00013c $4f
MFP H-SYNC
$000140 $50
SCC(B) Transmission buffer empty
$000144 $51
SCC(B) ''
$000148 $52
SCC(B) External/status changes
$00014c $53
SCC(B) ''
$000150 $54
SCC(B) Incoming character validity (Mouse 1 byte input)
$000154 $55
SCC(B) ''
$000158 $56
SCC(B) Special Rx condition
$00015c $57
SCC(B) ''
$000160 $58
SCC(A) Transmission buffer empty
$000164 $59
SCC(A) ''
$000168 $5a
SCC(A) External status changes
$00016c $5b
SCC(A) ''
$000170 $5c
SCC(A) Incoming character validity (RS-232C 1 byte input)
$000174 $5d
SCC(A) ''
$000178 $5e
SCC(A) Special Rx Condition
$00017c $5f
SCC(A) ''
$000180 $60
I/O FDC status interruption
$000184 $61
I/O FDC insertion/discharge interruption
$000188 $62
I/O HDC status interruption
$00018c $63
I/O Printer ready interruption
$000190 $64
DMAC #0 End (FDD)
$000194 $65
DMAC #0 Error ('')
$000198 $66
DMAC #1 End (SASI)
$00019c $67
DMAC #1 Error ('')
$0001a0 $68
DMAC #2 End (IOCS _DMAMOVE,_DMAMOV_A,_DMAMOV_L)
$0001a4 $69
DMAC #2 Error ('')
$0001a8 $6a
DMAC #3 End (ADPCM)
$0001ac $6b
DMAC #3 Error ('')
$000200 $6c
SPC SCSI interruption (Internal SCSI)
$000204 $6d
Unused
$0003d4 $f5
Unused
$0003d8 $f6
SPC SCSI interruption (SCSI board)
$0003dc $f7
Unused
$0003fc $ff
Unused
0x000000

RAM area
$c00000

Graphics Vram � Page 0
$c80000

Graphics Vram � Page 1 (256/16 color only)
$d00000

Graphics Vram � Page 2 (16 color only)
$d80000

Graphics Vram � Page 3 (16 color only)
$e00000

Text Vram � Bitplane 0
$e20000

Text Vram � Bitplane 1
$e40000

Text Vram � Bitplane 2
$e60000

Text Vram � Bitplane 3
$e80000 1.w
R00 Horizontal total
$e80002 1.w
R01 Horizontal synchronization end position timing
$e80004 1.w
R02 Horizontal display start position
$e80006 1.w
R03 Horizontal display end position
$e80008 1.w
R04 Vertical total
$e8000a 1.w
R05 Vertical synchronization end position timing
$e8000c 1.w
R06 Vertical display start position
$e8000e 1.w
R07 Vertical display end position
$e80010 1.w
R08 External synchronization horizontal adjust: Horizontal position tuning
$e80012 1.w
R09 Raster number: Used for raster interruption
$e80014 1.w
R10 Text Screen X coordinate
$e80016 1.w
R11 Text Screen Y coordinate
$e80018 1.w
R12 Graphics screen Scroll X0
$e8001a 1.w
R13 Graphics screen Scroll Y0
$e8001c 1.w
R14 Graphics screen Scroll X1
$e8001e 1.w
R15 Graphics screen Scroll Y1
$e80020 1.w
R16 Graphics screen Scroll X2
$e80022 1.w
R17 Graphics screen Scroll Y2
$e80024 1.w
R18 Graphics screen Scroll X3
$e80026 1.w
R19 Graphics screen Scroll Y3
$e80028 1.w
R20 Memory mode/Display mode control
$e8002a 1.w
R21 Simultaneous access/Raster copy/Quick clear plane select
$e8002c 1.w
R22 Raster copy action: Raster number
$e8002e 1.w
R23 Text screen access mask pattern
$e80481 1.b
Active Image capture/Quick clear/Raster copy control
$e82000 256.w
Graphics palette
$e82200 16.w
Text palette (Palette block 0)
$e82220 240.w
Sprite palette ('' 1-15)
$e82400 1.w
R0 (Screen mode initialization)
$e82500 1.w
R1 (Priority control)
$e82600 1.w
R2 (Special priority/screen display) - Layers On/Off
$e84000

DMAC (HD63450)
$e86000

Memory controller privileged access settings (OHM/ASA)
$e88000

MFP (MC68901)
$e8a000

RTC (RP5C15)
$e8c000

Printer port
$e8e001

#1 Contrast
$e8e003

#2 Display/3D Shutter Glasses (Bit 0=Right Eye / Bit 1 = Left Eye)
$e8e005

#3 Color image unit (bit 4-0)
$e8e007

#4 Keyboard/NMI/dot clock
$e8e009

#5 ROM/DRAM Wait
$e8e00b

#6 MPU Classification/Operation clock
$e8e00d

#7 SRAM Write
$e8e00f

#8 Unit power OFF
$E90001

FM Synthesizer (YM2151) - Register Address Write port
$E90003

FM Synthesizer (YM2151) - Data R/W port
$E92000

ADPCM (MSM6258V)
$E94000

Floppy disk controller (FDC) (uPD72065)
$E94005

Floppy drive monitor (IOSC)
$E96000

SASI
$E98000

ESCC (Z8530)
$E9A000

PPI (82C55)
$E9C000

I/O selector (IOSC)
$E9E000

I/O expansion area (Sharp reserved)
$EB0000

Sprite register (CYNTHIA)
$EB8000

Sprite VRAM
$EC0000

I/O expansion area (User)
$ed0072 2.b
SX-Window environment flag (While in use with "SX")
$ed0074 1.b
Standard double-click time / 10
$ed0075 1.b
Mouse speed / 2
$ed0076 1.b
Text palette hue (HSV)
$ed0077 1.b

$ed0078 1.b
Brightness palette 0-3 5bit???
$ed007b 1.b
Printer drive (PRTD) ID
$ed007c 1.b
SRAM info version#, screen status storage, start screen storage
$ed007d 1.b
Desktop background (PICT) ID
$ed007e 1.b
Screen mode
$ed007f 17.b
Reserved for system use (X68030)
$ed0090 1.b
Standard cache status (bit=0: off 1:on)
$ed0091 1.b
OPM music during startup (0: OFF -1: ON)
$ed0092 1.b
10MHz Proper wait value
$ed0093 1.b
16MHz ''
$ed0094 108.b
Reserved for system use
$ed0100 768.b
Head SRAM program address
$ed0400 15KB
Head SRAMDISK address
$ed3fff

End of SRAM
$ed4000

Backup (64KB)
$ee0000

Unused (128KB)
$f00000

CGROM(768KB)
$fc0000

SCSI IOCS / IPL(8KB)
$fe0000

ROM Debugger
$ff0000

IPL / ROM IOCS

Dos Calls
You can use Dos calls to do basic tasks, they are performed with dc.w $FFxx ... where xx is the command number:

Code Shortname Meaning Example                        Example function
$FF00 _EXIT Program end dc.w $FF00
$FF01 _GETCHAR Get keyboard input (with echo)

$FF02 _PUTCHAR Put character move.w #'A',-(a7)
dc.w $FF02   

Show character 'A' to the screen
$FF03 _COMINP RS-232C 1 byte input

$FF04 _COMOUT RS-232C 1 byte output

$FF05 _PRNOUT Printer 1 character output

$FF06 _INPOUT Character I/O

$FF07 _INKEY Get one character from the keyboard (no break check)

$FF08 _GETC Get one character from the keyboard (with break check)

$FF09 _PRINT Print string pea mes
dc.w $ff09
mes:dc.b 'Hello World',$0D,$0A,0
Print 0 terminated 'mes' to screen
$FF0A _GETS Get character string (with break check)

$FF0B _KEYSNS Key input state check

$FF0C _KFLUSH Keyboard input after buffer flush

$FF0D _FFLUSH Disk reset

$FF0E _CHGDRV Current drive setting

$FF0F _DRVCTRL Drive status check/setting

$FF10 _CONSNS Screen output check

$FF11 _PRNSNS Printer output check

$FF12 _CINSNS RS-232C input check

$FF13 _COUTSNS RS-232C output check

$FF17 _FATCHK File concatenation state check

$FF18 _HENDSP Kanji conversion control

$FF19 _CURDRV Get current drive

$FF1A _GETSS Get character string (no break check)

$FF1B _FGETC Get character from file

$FF1C _FGETS Get string from file

$FF1D _FPUTC Write one character to file

$FF1E _FPUTS Write string to file

$FF1F _ALLCLOSE Close all files

$FF20 _SUPER Supervisor/user mode setting clr.l d0            ;0=Enable Supervisor mode
move.l d0,-(sp)
dc.w $FF20            ;Switch Mode   

0=Super Mode
!=0 User mode with new SP
$FF21 _FNCKEY Get/set redefinable key

$FF22 _KNJCTRL Kana-to-kanji conversion

$FF23 _CONCTRL Console control/direct output move.w #1,d2
move.w d2,-(sp)
move.w #2,d2
move.w d2,-(sp)
dc.w $ff23
Set console color to #1



move.w #6,d2            ;Y
move.w d2,-(sp)
move.w #5,d2            ;X
move.w d2,-(sp)
move.w #3,d2         
move.w d2,-(sp)
dc.w $ff23
Set Cursor XY pos to 5,6



move.w #$12,-(a7)  
dc.w $FF23
Cursor Off



move.w #$03,-(a7)
move.w #$0E,-(a7)
dc.w $FF23
Function key display off
$FF24 _KEYCTRL Console state check/direct input

$FF25 _INTVCS Set vector processing address

$FF26 _PSPSET Create process management pointer

$FF27 _GETTIM2 Get time (longword)

$FF28 _SETTIM2 Set time (longword)

$FF29 _NAMESTS Filename expansion

$FF2A _GETDATE Get date

$FF2B _SETDATE Set date

$FF2C _GETTIME Get time

$FF2D _SETTIME Set time

$FF2E _VERIFY Set verify flag

$FF2F _DUP0 Force file handle copy

$FF30 _VERNUM Get OS version

$FF31 _KEEPPR Terminate and stay resident

$FF32 _GETDPB Get drive parameter block

$FF33 _BREAKCK Set break check

$FF34 _DRVXCHG Replace drive

$FF35 _INTVCG Get vector processing address

$FF36 _DSKFRE Get disk space remaining

$FF37 _NAMECK Filename expansion

$FF39 _MKDIR Create subdirectory

$FF3A _RMDIR Remove subdirectory

$FF3B _CHDIR Change current directory

$FF3C _CREATE Create file

$FF3D _OPEN Open file

$FF3E _CLOSE Close file

$FF3F _READ Read file

$FF40 _WRITE Write file

$FF41 _DELETE Delete file

$FF42 _SEEK Seek file

$FF43 _CHMOD Set/get file modes

$FF44 _IOCTRL Device driver ioctrl direct I/O

$FF45 _DUP Copy file handle

$FF46 _DUP2 Force copy file handle

$FF47 _CURDIR Get current directory

$FF48 _MALLOC Allocate memory

$FF49 _MFREE Free memory

$FF4A _SETBLOCK Change memory block

$FF4B _EXEC Load/execute program

$FF4C _EXIT2 Exit with return code move.w #1,-(sp)
dc.w $FF4C

$FF4D _WAIT Get process end return code

$FF4E _FILES Search files

$FF4F _NFILES Search next files

$FF80 _SETPDB Change process information

$FF81 _GETPDB Get process information

$FF82 _SETENV Set environment variable

$FF83 _GETENV Get environment variable

$FF84 _VERIFYG Get verify flag

$FF85 _COMMON COMMON area control

$FF86 _RENAME Rename/move file

$FF87 _FILEDATE Get/set file date

$FF88 _MALLOC2 Alloc memory

$FF8A _MAKETMP Create temporary file

$FF8B _NEWFILE Create new file

$FF8C _LOCK Lock file

$FF8F _ASSIGN Get/set/cancel virtual drive/directory assignment

$FFAA FFLUSH Set FFLUSH mode (undocumented)

$FFAB _OS_PATCH Hook OS internal function (undocumented)

$FFAC _GETFCB Get FCB pointer (undocumented)

$FFAD _S_MALLOC Alloc memory using main memory management

$FFAE _S_MFREE Free memory using main memory management

$FFAF _S_PROCESS Sub memory management setting

$FFF0 _EXITVC (program end execution address)

$FFF1 _CTRLVC (CTRL+C execution address at abort)

$FFF2 _ERRJVC (Error abort execution address)

$FFF3 _DISKRED Block device direct input

$FFF4 _DISKWRT Block device direct output

$FFF5 _INDOSFLG Get OS work pointer

$FFF6 _SUPER_JSR Supervisor subroutine call

$FFF7 _BUS_ERR Check for bus error

$FFF8 _OPEN_PR Register background task

$FFF9 _KILL_PR Remove background task

$FFFA _GET_PR Get thread management information

$FFFB _SUSPEND_PR Force thread to sleep

$FFFC _SLEEP_PR Sleep thread

$FFFD _SEND_PR Transmit thread command/data

$FFFE _TIME_PR Get timer counter value

$FFFF _CHANGE_PR Yield execution time

Human68k
Human68k is generally DOS like, however while it is based around 8.3 filenames, the files can be 18.3 - but please note, the extra 10 letters are not 'really counted' the first 8 must make the filename unique!
Human68k also supports lowercase files... but your disks will no longer be compatible with MS-DOS

Most commands like CD, DIR and EXIT work the same as normal DOS, but many do not, and some work differently ... here are a few commands beyond the basics you may want to remember...
Command Meaning
CUSTOM Reconfigure config.sys and autoexec.bat
DISKCOPY A: B: Copy Disk A to B
DUMP file.name Dump file.name as Hex/Ascii
FORMAT B: erase Disk B
SWITCH change bios settings (including installed memory)
TYPE file.txt Type the contents of file.txt to the command line
ED file.txt Edit file.txxt (see above section for usage)

FM Sound - YM2151 Chip

For full details of the YM2151 can be found in the  YM2151 PDF

The FM sound chip has 8 channels....
Each channel's sound can be built up with 4 different 'slots'... meaning there are a total of 32 slots... these slots are turned on or off when the sound is triggered

Setting a register is easy,  we write the register number to  $E90001 , then we write the 8 bit value to $E90003

For registers with 32 slots (eg $60 - volume) we can calculate the address of a channels slot with the formula:
Address = RegisterBase + 8*ChannelSlot + Channel

So if RegisterBase=$60 , ChannelSlot=3 and Channel=7 then we get $60+24+7
Setting a register on the X68000

move.b #$20,$E90001     
move.b #%11000000,$E90003

YM2151 Registers
The YM2151 is controlled by 255 registers, that are summarized below:

   Address      7     6     5     4     3     2     1     0   Summary Bit Meanings
$01 T T T T T T T T Test T=Test
$08 - S S S S C C C Key On (Play Sound) C=Channel S=Slot (C2 � M2 � C1 � M1)
$0F E - - F F F F F Noise E=noise enable  F=Frequency
(Noise only on Chn7 Slot32)
$10 C C C C C C C C CLKA1
$11 - - - - - - C C CLKA2
$12 C C C C C C C C CLKB
$14 C - F F I I L L
C=CSM F=F-Reset I=IRQEN L=LOAD
$18 L L L L L L L L LFREQ
$19 M M M M M M M M PMD/AMD
$1B D C - - - - W W
D=Disk state C=CT  (4mhz/8mhz)
W=Waveform (0=Saw 1=Square,2=Tri, 3=Noise)
$20-$27 L R F F F C C C Chn0-7� F=Feedback, C=Connection
$28-$2F - O O O N N N N Chn0-7� KeyCode O=Octave, N=Note
$30-$37 F F F F F F - - Chn0-7� Key Fraction F=Fraction
$38-$3F - P P P - - A A Chn0-7� PMS / AMS P=PMS , A=AMS
$40-$5F - D D D M M M M Slot1-32. Decay/Mult D=Decay D1T, M=Mult
$60-$7F - V V V V V V V Slot1-32. Volume V=Volume (TL) (0=max)
$80-$9F K K - A A A A A Slot1-32. Keyscale / Attack K=Keycale, A=attack
$A0-$BF A - - D D D D D Slot1-32. AMS / Decay A=AMS-EN, D=Decay D1R
$C0-$DF T T - D D D D D Slot1-32. DeTune / Decay T=Detune DT2, D=Decay D2R
$E0-$FF D D D D R R R R Slot1-32. Decay / Release D=Decay D1L, R=Release Rate

Not all values for NNNN in the Octave in $28-$2F have a different note, the following are useful:

NNNN Value  0
 1 
 2
  4 
  5 
 6
 8 
 9  10 
 12 
 13 
 14 
Note C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B C

Connection options for $20-$27 are shown below:


Vblank!

I had a lot of trouble finding documentation on how to wait for Vblank,  so I though I'd mark it clearly here!

Vblank can be detected by the MFP (MC68901)... By testing memory address $e88001 - bit 4

The sample code I used for Grime68000 is shown to the right...
waitVBlank:
    move.w $e88000,d0
    and.w #%00010000,d0            ;Wait for vblank to start
    beq waitVBlank
waitVBlank2:   

    move.w $e88000,d0
    and.w #%00010000,d0            ;Wait for Vblank to end
    bne waitVBlank2
    rts

Hardware Sprites - Initialization
We need to set up some registers to get our sprites working - otherwise they just won't show!

We have to set up our layering correctly, so the sprites are in the foreground, we do this by setting $E82500 to $2E4
We have to enable the sprite layer, we do this by setting $E82600 to $C1
We also need to set the "Background Control"... we're going to make the sprites visible, this slows down writing, but means we can change the sprites while showing them... we do this by writing  $200 to $EB0808

We also need to set Registers $EB080A-$EB0810 to the values shown in the 'Setting Graphics Modes' Table
            move.w #%0000001000000000,$eB0808
;Disp/CPU 1=sprites on (slow writing)

            move.w #%0000001011100100,$e82500
;R1 (Priority control) - Priority

            move.w #%0000000011000001,$e82600
;R2 (Special priority/screen display) - Screen On - sprites on

            move.w #%0000001000000000,$eB0808
;Disp/CPU 1=sprites on (slow writing)

            move.w #$25,$EB080A        ; Sprite H Total
            move.w #$04,$EB080C        ; Sprite H Disp
            move.w #$10,$EB080E        ; Sprite V Disp
            move.w #$00,$EB0810        ; Sprite Res %---FVVHH

Sprite Settings
Each Sprite has 4 Words defining the settings of the sprite... these start at $EB0000 for sprite 0.... $EB0008 for sprite 1, through to $EB03F8 for sprite 127
Address F E D C B A 9 8
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
$EB0000 - - - - - - X X
X X X X X X X X   X=Xpos (16 is far left)
$EB0002 - - - - - - Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y   Y=Ypos (16 is top)
$EB0004 V H - - C C C C
S S S S S S S S   V=Vflip, H=Hflip, C=color, S=sprite
$EB0006 - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - P P   P=Priority (00=off... 01=back...  11=front)  

Sprite Bitmap Data Settings
Sprite bitmap data appears from address $EB8000 onwards, each sprite is 128 bytes...
Sprites are split into four 8x8 chunks, these are stored in 4 different memory addresses to make up the 16x16 sprite,

The byte data for these sprites uses 1 nibble for each pixel, and selects a color from the chosen palette for that pixel

Sprite Pixel Data:
Address F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
EB8000 Color Color Color Color
EB8002 Color Color Color Color
















EBBFFE Color Color Color Color

8x8 Chunk layout:

16 pixels
16 pixels TopLeft
1

TopRight
3

BottomLeft
2

BottomRight
4

8x8 chunks position in ram:
SpriteNum 8x8 chunk Address
0 TopLeft $EB8000
BottomLeft $EB8020
TopRight $EB8040
BottomRight $EB8060
1 TopLeft $EB8080
BottomLeft $EB80A0
TopRight $EB80C0
BottomRight $EB80E0
2 TopLeft $EB8100


127 TopLeft $EBBF80
BottomLeft $EBBFA0
TopRight $EBBFC0
BottomRight $EBBFE0


X68000 3D Shutter Glasses

The X68000 supports 3D shutter glasses via the external port... generic shutter glasses can be connected via a converter.

Unfortunately they don't seem to be supported by any available emulator!

The shutter glasses are controlled by bit 0/1 of port $E8E003... Writing 0 opens a lens, writing 1 closes a lens.
address Bytes Function Bits
$E8E003 1 Byte (RW)
3D Shutter Glasses %----T-LR


Mouse

The X68000 Mouse can be controlled via Trap #15 - the option is selected with the value in D0.

The operating system can show a cursor and even create a limited range (handy for games like DUNE 2), but the mouse cursor can be read with no cursor visible, and 'movement amounts' can be measured with $74 (handy for games like DOOM)

Trap #15
D0
Name Function Params Returns Notes
$70 _MS_INIT Mouse Init


$71 _MS_CURON Cursor On


$72 _MS_CUROF Cursor Off


$73 _MS_STAT Get Cursor Status
D0=status
$74 _MS_GETDT Get Buttons + Move amount
D0=$XXYYLLRR
$75 _MS_CURGT 
Get Cursor Pos
D0=$XXXXYYYY
$76 _MS_CURST Set Cursor Pos D1=$XXXXYYYY D0=Success?
$77 _MS_LIMIT Set Range Limits (X,Y)-(x,y) D1=$XXXXYYYY D2=$xxxxyyyy

$78 _MS_OFFTM Check time until mouse button was released D1=Button (0/1=L/R) D2=Wait Time D0=Drag/Wait
$79 _MS_ONTM Time until mouse button pressed D1=Button (0/1=L/R) D2=Wait Time D0=Drag/Wait
$7A _MS_PATST Set Cursor Graphic D1=PatternNum A1=Graphic Address
18 words�
1W: center pos X
1W: centercPos Y
16W: Shadow graphic
16W: Cusor Graphic
$7B _MS_SEL Select Cursor Graphic D1=PatternNum

$7C _MS_SEL2 Select Animated Cursor A1=Graphic Address
Up to 6 words�
Each is a cursor number -1=End
$7D _SKEY_MOD Show/Hide Soft Keyboard
D1=0/1/2/-1 (Off/On/Check/Auto) D2=$XXXXYYYY
D0=State


Bitmap Layer addresses (16 color mode)

Here are the addresses you need to write to for each layer!... Don't forget to turn the layers on with $e82600, and set the priority with $e82500!!!

Layer 
VRAM base 
Scroll-X 
Scroll-Y 
0
$c00000 $e80018 $e8001a
1
$c80000 $e8001c $e8001e
2
$d00000 $e80020 $e80022
3
$d80000 $e80024 $e80026


Text Layer addresses (16 color)

Each pixel can be color 0-15... 4 bits per pixel... This data is split into bitplanes, meaning all the 'bit 0's of the pixels are stored together, as are bit 1's , 2's and 3's

Bit 0's are at $E00000, Bit 1's are at $E20000 and so on.

Address Bitplane
$E00000 
0
$E20000 1
$E40000 2
$E60000 3

Palette: $E82200-$E8221E (%GGGGGRRRRRBBBBBT  T=Transparent) (Same as Sprite Palette 0)

Scroll-X: $E80014
Scroll-Y: $E80016

Don't forget to turn the layers on with $E82600, and set the priority with $E82500!!!


Interrupts and Vblank

Vblank and many other interrupts are generated by the MFT.

The interrupts can be enabled with $E88007/9, however they are also 'masked' with $E88013/5 (a bit 1 in both enables an interrupt!)

Address Function Bits Details
$e88001 MFP:GPIP Data HI-VFPSA A=rtc Alarm S=Slot �expwon� command P=power switch F=Fm irq V=Vblank I=video Irq H=hblank
$e88003 MFP:Active Edge Reg HI-VFPSA A=rtc Alarm S=Slot �expwon� command P=power switch F=Fm irq V=Vblank I=video Irq H=hblank
$e88005 MFP:GPIP port IIIIIIII IO Select
$e88007 MFP:Interrupt control A 76AFRETB 7=Gpip7 6=Gpip6 A=Timer A F=recieve buffer Full R=Recieve error E=send buffer Empty T=transmit error B=timer B
$e88009 MFP:Interrupt control B 54CD3210 5=gpip 5 4=gpip4 C=timer C D=timer D 3=gpip3 2=gpip2 1=gpip1 0=gpip 0
$e8800B MFP:Interrupt Pending A 76AFRETB 7=Gpip7 6=Gpip6 A=Timer A F=recieve buffer Full R=Recieve error E=send buffer Empty T=transmit error B=timer B
$e8800D MFP:Interrupt Pending B 54CD3210 5=gpip 5 4=gpip4 C=timer C D=timer D 3=gpip3 2=gpip2 1=gpip1 0=gpip 0
$e8800F MFP:Interrupt In service A 76AFRETB 7=Gpip7 6=Gpip6 A=Timer A F=recieve buffer Full R=Recieve error E=send buffer Empty T=transmit error B=timer B
$e88011 MFP:Interrupt In service B 54CD3210 5=gpip 5 4=gpip4 C=timer C D=timer D 3=gpip3 2=gpip2 1=gpip1 0=gpip 0
$e88013 MFP:Interrupt Mask A 76AFRETB 7=Gpip7 6=Gpip6 A=Timer A F=recieve buffer Full R=Recieve error E=send buffer Empty T=transmit error B=timer B
$e88015 MFP:Interrupt Mask B 54CD3210 5=gpip 5 4=gpip4 C=timer C D=timer D 3=gpip3 2=gpip2 1=gpip1 0=gpip 0
$e88017 MFP:Interrupt Vector register VVVVA--- V= Channel 0-16 handled automatically by MFP, A=All interrupts on (ISRA/B on)
$e88019 MFP:Timer A control register 000T1000 T=Reset signal 1000=Timer A event count mode
$e8801B MFP:Timer B control register 000T1000 T=Reset signal 1000=Timer B event count mode
$e8801D MFP:Timer CD control register 0CCC0DDD C=Timer C Delay mode / D=Timer D Delay mode
$e8801F MFP:Timer A Data Register

$e88021 MFP:Timer B Data Register

$e88023 MFP:Timer C Data Register

$e88025 MFP:Timer D Data Register

$e88029 MFP:USART Keyboard signal 10000100D D=
$e8802B MFP:Transmission Status (Send) ?
$e8802D MFP:Transmission Status (Recieve)

Interrupt 6 - Gpip4 is the Vblank (referred to as V-Disp) controlled by bit 7 of $E88009 and $E88015 - This causes an execution of vector $46 at address $000118

The default vector base for the interrupts is vector $40 at address $000100 - this can be changed with the top 4 bits of $e88017

Address Function Bits
$000100 $40 UserInterrupt: MFP RTC Alarm/1Hz
$000104 $41 UserInterrupt: MFP External power OFF
$000118 $42 UserInterrupt: MFP Front switch OFF
$00010c $43 UserInterrupt: MFP FM Audio source
$000110 $44 UserInterrupt: MFP Timer-D (Used with BG processing)
$000114 $45 UserInterrupt: MFP Timer-C (Mouse/cursor/FDD control, etc.)
$000118 $46 UserInterrupt: MFP V-DISP1(Vblank / GPIP4)
$00011c $47 UserInterrupt: MFP RTC Clock
$000120 $48 UserInterrupt: MFP Timer-B
$000124 $49 UserInterrupt: MFP Key serial output error
$000128 $4a UserInterrupt: MFP Key serial output empty
$00012c $4b UserInterrupt: MFP Key serial input error
$000130 $4c UserInterrupt: MFP Key serial input
$000134 $4d UserInterrupt: MFP Timer-A
$000138 $4e UserInterrupt: MFP CRTC*IRQ
$00013c $4f UserInterrupt: MFP H-SYNC
$000140 $50 UserInterrupt: SCC(B) Transmission buffer empty
$000144 $51 UserInterrupt: SCC(B) ''
$000148 $52 UserInterrupt: SCC(B) External/status changes
$00014c $53 UserInterrupt: SCC(B) ''
$000150 $54 UserInterrupt: SCC(B) Incoming character validity (Mouse 1 byte input)
$000154 $55 UserInterrupt: SCC(B) ''
$000158 $56 UserInterrupt: SCC(B) Special Rx condition
$00015c $57 UserInterrupt: SCC(B) ''
$000160 $58 UserInterrupt: SCC(A) Transmission buffer empty
$000164 $59 UserInterrupt: SCC(A) ''
$000168 $5a UserInterrupt: SCC(A) External status changes
$00016c $5b UserInterrupt: SCC(A) ''
$000170 $5c UserInterrupt: SCC(A) Incoming character validity (RS-232C 1 byte input)
$000174 $5d UserInterrupt: SCC(A) ''
$000178 $5e UserInterrupt: SCC(A) Special Rx Condition
$00017c $5f UserInterrupt: SCC(A) ''
$000180 $60 UserInterrupt: I/O FDC status interruption
$000184 $61 UserInterrupt: I/O FDC insertion/discharge interruption
$000188 $62 UserInterrupt: I/O HDC status interruption
$00018c $63 UserInterrupt: I/O Printer ready interruption
$000190 $64 UserInterrupt: DMAC #0 End (FDD)
$000194 $65 UserInterrupt: DMAC #0 Error ('')
$000198 $66 UserInterrupt: DMAC #1 End (SASI)
$00019c $67 UserInterrupt: DMAC #1 Error ('')
$0001a0 $68 UserInterrupt: DMAC #2 End (IOCS _DMAMOVE,_DMAMOV_A,_DMAMOV_L)
$0001a4 $69 UserInterrupt: DMAC #2 Error ('')
$0001a8 $6a UserInterrupt: DMAC #3 End (ADPCM)
$0001ac $6b UserInterrupt: DMAC #3 Error ('')
$000200 $6c UserInterrupt: SPC SCSI interruption (Internal SCSI)
$000204 $6d UserInterrupt: Unused
$0003d4 $f5 UserInterrupt: Unused
$0003d8 $f6 UserInterrupt: SPC SCSI interruption (SCSI board)
$0003dc $f7 UserInterrupt: Unused
$0003fc $ff UserInterrupt: Unused


X68000 Links!
Replacing an x68000 powersupply - The power supply breaks a lot, but can easilly be replaced with a PC Pico-ATX psu!
Connecting a HxC to the x68000 - Note, while this somewhat works, there are problems due to the extra control lines not being connected
External floppy pinout - I used this to connect my HxC to my x68000 and create disks from images
Connecting SCSI2SD to the x68000 - a cheap SD emulator for the SCSI/SASI hard drive

 

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